Pereira MA, Jacobs DR, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI & Ludwig DS: Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA. 287, 2081-2089

Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 05/2002; 287(16):2081-9. DOI: 10.1016/S1062-1458(02)00775-4
Source: PubMed


Components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), including obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Although diet has been postulated to influence IRS, the independent effects of dairy consumption on development of this syndrome have not been investigated.
To examine associations between dairy intake and incidence of IRS, adjusting for confounding lifestyle and dietary factors.
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based prospective study.
General community sample from 4 US metropolitan areas of 3157 black and white adults aged 18 to 30 years who were followed up from 1985-1986 to 1995-1996.
Ten-year cumulative incidence of IRS and its association with dairy consumption, measured by diet history interview.
Dairy consumption was inversely associated with the incidence of all IRS components among individuals who were overweight (body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2)) at baseline but not among leaner individuals (body mass index < 25 kg/m(2)). The adjusted odds of developing IRS (2 or more components) were 72% lower (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.58) among overweight individuals in the highest (> or =35 times per week, 24/102 individuals) compared with the lowest (<10 times per week, 85/190 individuals) category of dairy consumption. Each daily occasion of dairy consumption was associated with a 21% lower odds of IRS (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.88). These associations were similar for blacks and whites and for men and women. Other dietary factors, including macronutrients and micronutrients, did not explain the association between dairy intake and IRS.
Dietary patterns characterized by increased dairy consumption have a strong inverse association with IRS among overweight adults and may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

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    • "It has been proposed that the intake of dairy products protects against cardiometabolic risk or several of its risk factors [1] [7] [8]. Evidence, mostly in adults, has indicated that increased dairy intake may decrease the risk of high blood pressure (BP) [8] [9], central obesity [10] [11], and hyperinsulinemia [12]. It has been established that such dairy components as calcium, medium-chain fatty acids, and bioactive peptides may play an important role in the prevention of cardiometabolic risk and its complications via the exertion of mechanisms that include the satiety response and the regulation of insulinemia levels and BP [13]. "

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    • "Moreover, some studies showed positive effects on metabolic parameters as a result of consumption of milk products. These studies suggest that the intake of dairy products, as a good source of essential nutrients and high quality protein, may reduce the risk of heart disease [12,13]. Cheese as a high saturated fat dairy product, may increase cholesterol concentration and can be associated with higher CVD risk [14,15]; contrarily, cheese is a good source of calcium (Ca) that might reduce heart disease by influencing plasma lipid profiles [16], reduce blood pressure [17,18], and adiposity [19,20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE It is expected that dairy products such as cheeses, which are the main source of cholesterol and saturated fat, may lead to the development or increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the results of different studies are inconsistent. This study was conducted to assess the association between cheese consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian adult population. SUBJECTS/METHODS Information from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) was used for this cross-sectional study with a total of 1,752 participants (782 men and 970 women). Weight, height, waist and hip circumference measurement, as well as fasting blood samples were gathered and biochemical assessments were done. To evaluate the dietary intakes of participants a validated food frequency questionnaire, consists of 49 items, was completed by expert technicians. Consumption of cheese was classified as less than 7 times per week and 7-14 times per week. RESULTS Higher consumption of cheese was associated with higher C-Reactive Protein (CRP), apolipoprotein A and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level but not with fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein B. Higher consumption of cheese was positively associated with consumption of liquid and solid oil, grain, pulses, fruit, vegetable, meat and dairy, and negatively associated with Global Dietary Index. After control for other potential confounders the association between cheese intake and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.81; 96%CI: 0.71-0.94), low HDL-C level (OR: 0.87; 96%CI: 0.79-0.96) and dyslipidemia (OR: 0.88; 96%CI: 0.79-0.98) became negatively significant. CONCLUSION This study found an inverse association between the frequency of cheese intake and cardiovascular risk factors; however, further prospective studies are required to confirm the present results and to illustrate its mechanisms.
    Nutrition research and practice 06/2014; 8(3). DOI:10.4162/nrp.2014.8.3.336 · 1.44 Impact Factor
    • "In one prospective study on 3157 young women aged 18-30, Pereira et al.[17] have reported in 2002 that the amount of dairy intake and insulin-resistance were indirectly related. A study by Pereira et al.[18] found an inverse relationship between consuming more than 4 units of dairy products per day and metabolic syndrome in the females. However, this relationship was not significant between males.[18] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive women. Nearly 10% of young women in this period involved. Although factors such as Insulin Resistance, hyper insulinemia, obesity and dietary are suggested to be associated with PCOS, cause of PCOS is not completely understood. Dairy products (a key component of the usual diet) of participants can also affect the factors of this disease and may have beneficial effects on treatment of PCOS. However, research in this area is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products consumption and PCOS. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of 400 women was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Science, Iran. Dietary intake was evaluated by validated food frequency questionnaire. Other variables such as ovarian disease, inherited predisposition, age at menarche, physical activity and history of other diseases were evaluated using questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by a logistic regression test using SPSS software version 15 Predictive analytics software and solutions. Results: There were a significant association between PCOS and ovarian disease (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001) and using medication (P = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with PCOS, but it was not significant (P = 0.068). There was a significant direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS after adjusting for confounding factors (P = 0.028). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that ovarian disease and medication use is directly linked to PCOS. Dairy consumption was not significantly correlated with PCOS. However, after adjustment for confounders, there was an direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS.
    International journal of preventive medicine 06/2014; 5(6):687-94.
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