Article

Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: The CARDIA study. JAMA, 287, 2081-2089

Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 30.39). 05/2002; 287(16):2081-9. DOI: 10.1016/S1062-1458(02)00775-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), including obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Although diet has been postulated to influence IRS, the independent effects of dairy consumption on development of this syndrome have not been investigated.
To examine associations between dairy intake and incidence of IRS, adjusting for confounding lifestyle and dietary factors.
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based prospective study.
General community sample from 4 US metropolitan areas of 3157 black and white adults aged 18 to 30 years who were followed up from 1985-1986 to 1995-1996.
Ten-year cumulative incidence of IRS and its association with dairy consumption, measured by diet history interview.
Dairy consumption was inversely associated with the incidence of all IRS components among individuals who were overweight (body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2)) at baseline but not among leaner individuals (body mass index < 25 kg/m(2)). The adjusted odds of developing IRS (2 or more components) were 72% lower (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.58) among overweight individuals in the highest (> or =35 times per week, 24/102 individuals) compared with the lowest (<10 times per week, 85/190 individuals) category of dairy consumption. Each daily occasion of dairy consumption was associated with a 21% lower odds of IRS (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.88). These associations were similar for blacks and whites and for men and women. Other dietary factors, including macronutrients and micronutrients, did not explain the association between dairy intake and IRS.
Dietary patterns characterized by increased dairy consumption have a strong inverse association with IRS among overweight adults and may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

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    • "It has been proposed that the intake of dairy products protects against cardiometabolic risk or several of its risk factors [1] [7] [8]. Evidence, mostly in adults, has indicated that increased dairy intake may decrease the risk of high blood pressure (BP) [8] [9], central obesity [10] [11], and hyperinsulinemia [12]. It has been established that such dairy components as calcium, medium-chain fatty acids, and bioactive peptides may play an important role in the prevention of cardiometabolic risk and its complications via the exertion of mechanisms that include the satiety response and the regulation of insulinemia levels and BP [13]. "
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    • "Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid, PHY) is a branched-chain fatty acid, produced by ruminal bacteria by enzymatic degradation of the chlorophyll a, b and d side chain phytol. It has been suggested that PHY and its primary metabolite, pristanic acid (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecanoic acid, PA) may be responsible for the protective effect exerted by dairy products against the metabolic syndrome (Hellgren, 2010; Pereira et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine milk samples were collected from 30 Dutch farms and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for phytanic acid (PHY), pristanic acid (PA) and SRR/RRR-diastereomers ratio of PHY. The samples differed in the percentage of fresh grass in the cows' daily ration (0–94%) fed either indoors or via grazing (daytime grazing or continuous grazing). Six samples were from organic/biodynamic farms. PHY and PA concentrations were not significantly higher in organic/biodynamic compared with conventional milk, nor were they correlated with the amount of fresh grass in the diet. The SRR/RRR-diastereomers ratio was correlated with the percentage of fresh grass in the diet and was lower in organic milk than in conventional milk, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.057). These results indicate that PHY and PA contents are not suitable indicators of pasture grazing or organic/biodynamic farming, whereas the SRR/RRR-diastereomers ratio may be useful for indicating fresh grass feeding and organic farming.
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    • "Negative associations between consumption of dairy products or calcium and body weight or obesity have been observed in several cross-sectional (Marques-Vidal et al., 2006; Mirmiran et al., 2005; Rosell et al., 2004) and longitudinal studies in adults (Davies et al., 2000; Fumeron et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2002). Various components of dairy foods, such as calcium (through its effects on intracellular calcium), other minerals (potassium, magnesium), or the insulinotropic effects of whey proteins may be responsible for these potential beneficial effects (McCarty, 2005; Nilsson et al., 2004; Tremblay & Gilbert, 2011). "
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