Somatostatin receptor-targeted radionuclide therapy of tumors: preclinical and clinical findings.
ABSTRACT In preclinical studies in rats we evaluated biodistribution and therapeutic effects of different somatostatin analogs, [(111)In-DTPA]octreotide, [(90)Y-DOTA,Tyr(3)]octreotide and [(177)Lu-DOTA,Tyr(3)]octreotate, currently also being applied in clinical radionuclide therapy studies. [Tyr(3)]octreotide and [Tyr(3)]octreotate, chelated with DTPA or DOTA, both showed high affinity binding to somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst(2)) in vitro. The radiolabelled compounds all showed high tumor uptake in sst(2)-positive tumors in vivo in rats, the highest uptake being reached with [(177)Lu-DOTA,Tyr(3)]octreotate. In preclinical therapy studies in vivo in rats, excellent, dose dependent, tumor size responses were found, responses appeared to be dependent on tumor size at therapy start. These preclinical data showed the great promise of radionuclide therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. They emphasised the concept that especially the combination of somatostatin analogs radiolabeled with different radionuclides, like (90)Y and (177)Lu, is most promising to reach a wider tumor size region of high curability. Furthermore, different phase I clinical studies, using [(111)In-DTPA]octreotide, [(90)Y-DOTA,Tyr(3)]octreotide or [(177)Lu-DOTA, Tyr(3)]octreotate are described. Fifty patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumors were treated with multiple doses of [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide. Forty patients were evaluable after cumulative doses of at least 20 GBq up to 160 GBq. Therapeutic effects were seen in 21 patients: partial remission in 1 patient, minor remissions in 6 patients, and stabilization of previously progressive tumors in 14 patients. The toxicity was generally mild bone marrow toxicity, but 3 of the 6 patients who received more than 100 GBq developed a myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia. Radionuclide therapy with [(90)Y-DOTA,Tyr(3)]octreotide started in 3 different phase I trials. Overall, antimitotic effects have been observed: about 20% partial response and 60% stable disease (N = 92) along with complete symptomatic cure of several malignant insulinoma and gastrinoma patients. Maximum cumulative [(90)Y-DOTA,Tyr(3)]octreotide dose was about 26 GBq, without reaching the maximum tolerable dose. New is the use of [(177)Lu-DOTA,Tyr(3)]octreotate, which shows the highest tumor uptake of all tested octreotide analogs so far, with excellent tumor-to-kidney ratios. Radionuclide therapy with this analog in a phase 1 trial started recently in our center in 63 patients (238 administrations), Interim analysis of 18 patients with neuroendocrine tumors was performed very recently. According to the WHO, toxicity criteria no dose limiting toxicity was observed. Minor CT-assessed tumor shrinkage (25% - 50% reduction) was noticed in 6% of 18 patients and partial remission (50% - 100% reduction, SWOG criteria) in 39%. Eleven percent of patients had tumor progression and in 44% no changes were seen. These data show that radionuclide therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogs, like [DOTA, Tyr(3)]octreotide and [DOTA, Tyr(3)octreotate is a most promising new treatment modality for patients who have sst(2)-positive tumors.
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ABSTRACT: The somatostatin analogue [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate has a nine-fold higher affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 as compared with [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide. Also, labelled with the beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclide lutetium-177, this compound has been shown to have a very favourable impact on tumour regression and animal survival in a rat model. Because of these reported advantages over the analogues currently used for somatostatin receptor-mediated radiotherapy, we decided to compare [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-octreotate) with [111In-DTPA0]octreotide (111In-octreotide) in six patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. Plasma radioactivity after 177Lu-octreotate expressed as a percentage of the injected dose was comparable with that after 111In-octreotide. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was significantly lower than after 111In-octreotide, averaging 64% after 24 h. The uptake after 24 h, expressed as a percentage of the injected dose of 177Lu-octreotate, was comparable to that after 111In-octreotide for kidneys, spleen and liver, but was three- to fourfold higher for four of five tumours. The spleen and kidneys received the highest absorbed doses. The doses to the kidneys were reduced by a mean of 47% after co-infusion of amino acids. It is concluded that in comparison with the radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogues that are currently available for somatostatin receptor-mediated radiotherapy, 177Lu-octreotate potentially represents an important improvement. Higher absorbed doses can be achieved to most tumours, with about equal doses to potentially dose-limiting organs; furthermore, the lower tissue penetration range of 177Lu as compared with 90Y may be especially important for small tumours.European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 01/2001; 28(9):1319-1325. · 5.11 Impact Factor
- International Journal of Cancer - INT J CANCER. 01/2001; 92(5):628-633.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to selectively target a beta-emitter-labelled octreotide analogue to somatostatin (SRIF)-receptor-expressing tumours and to evaluate the feasibility of SRIF-receptor-mediated radiotherapy by delivering a lethal dose of radiation to the tumour. The most promising compound in a series of DTPA-coupled octreotide analogues was DTPA-benzyl-acetamido-D-Phe1, Tyr3-octreotide (SDZ413). In vitro, SDZ413 binds with nanomolar affinity to SRIF-receptors (IC50 = 4.0 nM) and inhibits growth hormone release from primary cultures of rat pituitary cells with an IC50 of 7.2 nM. Biodistribution studies with [90Y]SDZ413 demonstrated a fast and significant SRIF-receptor-specific accumulation of the labelled conjugate (tumour/muscle ratio after 24 h: 52/1). [90Y]SDZ413 was effective in the radiotherapy of SRIF-receptor-positive tumours in a nude mouse model. A single treatment with [90Y]SDZ413 led to a significant decrease (25%) of tumour mass. This effect was mediated by the intact radioligand, since treatment with [90Y]SDZ978, a derivative of SDZ413 which does not bind with high affinity to SRIF-receptors or with the unlabelled SDZ413 alone, failed to affect tumour growth. These results suggest that receptor-targeted radiotherapy with a 90Y-labelled octreotide analogue represents a new strategy for the treatment of SRIF-receptor-positive tumours that have been previously diagnosed with OctreoScan111 (pentetreotide).Digestion 02/1996; 57 Suppl 1:17-21. · 1.94 Impact Factor