TACE/ADAM17-TNF-alpha pathway in rat cortical cultures after exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation or glutamate.
ABSTRACT The role of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha convertase (TACE/ADAM17) in the adult nervous system remains poorly understood. The authors have previously demonstrated that TACE is upregulated in rat forebrain slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). They have now used rat mixed cortical cultures exposed to OGD or glutamate to study (1) TACE expression and localization, and (2) the effects of TNF-alpha release on cell viability. OGD-or glutamate-caused TNF-alpha release, an effect that was blocked by the TACE inhibitor BB3103 (BB) (0.1-1 micromol/L; control: 1.67 +/- 0.59; OGD: 6.59 +/- 1.52; glutamate: 3.38 +/- 0.66; OGD +/- BB0.1: 3.23 +/- 0.67; OGD +/- BB1: 1.33 +/- 0.22 pg/mL, n = 6, P < 0.05). Assay of TACE activity as well as Western blot showed that TACE expression is increased in OGD-or glutamate-exposed cells. In control cultures, TACE immunoreactivity was present in some microglial cells, whereas, after OGD or glutamate, TACE immunostaining appeared in most microglial cells and in some astrocytes. Conversely, BB3103 (0.1 micromol/L) caused apoptosis after glutamate exposure as shown by annexin and Hoechst 33342 staining and caspase-3 activity, an effect mimicked by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 (caspase activity: glutamate: 5.1 +/- 0.1; glutamate + BB: 7.8 +/- 0.8; glutamate + MG: 11.9 +/- 0.5 pmol. min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 4, P < 0.05), suggesting that translocation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB mediates TNF-alpha-induced antiapoptotic effect. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, in rat mixed neuronal-glial cortical cultures exposed to OGD or glutamate, (1) TACE/ADAM17 activity accounts for the majority of TNF-alpha shedding, (2) an increase in glial TACE expression contributes to the rise in TNF-alpha, and (3) TNF-alpha release in this setting inhibits apoptosis via activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.
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ABSTRACT: Glycoprotein (GP) Ibα ectodomain shedding has important implications for thrombosis and hemostasis. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) was identified to play an essential role in agonist induced GPIbα shedding. The relationship of GPIbα shedding and ADAM17 in the acute stage of atherosclerotic ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has not been thoroughly studied. A total of 306 patients and 230 controls matched for age, sex, race, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study. GPIbα, ADAM17, glycocalicin were detected by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Compared with the control group, the expression of GPIbα in patients with acute ischemic stroke was significantly lower (P=0.000, P<0.01). Plasma glycocalicin and ADAM17 in AIS group were higher than those in control group (P=0.699, P=0.000). Pearson's analysis showed glycocalicin bore no correlation with GPIbα in AIS patients (r=0.095, P>0.05). GPIbα and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) had negative correlation (r=-0.514, P<0.01). Our findings indicate that ADAM17 may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke in Chinese and the expression of GPIbα can serve as a measure for stroke severity.Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 06/2013; 33(3):438-42. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Besides its role as a thrombolytic agent, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) triggers harmful effects in the brain parenchyma after stroke, such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and basal lamina degradation. Neuroserpin, a natural inhibitor of tPA, has shown neuroprotective effects in animal models of brain infarct. However, the molecular mechanisms of neuroserpin-mediated neuroprotection after brain ischemia remain to be well characterized. Then, our aim was to investigate such mechanisms in primary mixed cortical cell cultures after oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Primary rat mixed cortical cultures containing both astrocytes and neurons were subjected to OGD for 150min and subsequently treated with either tPA (5μg/mL), neuroserpin (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 or 1μM), and tPA together with neuroserpin at the mentioned doses. Twenty-four hours after treatment, LDH release, caspase-3 activity, MCP-1, MIP-2, active MMP-9, GRO/KC and COX-2 were measured. Statistical differences were analyzed using Student's t-test or one-way ANOVA as appropriate. Treatment with tPA after OGD increased LDH release, active MMP-9, MCP-1 and MIP-2 (all p≤0.05), but not caspase-3, GRO/KC or COX-2 compared to control. Treatment with neuroserpin after OGD decreased LDH release and active MMP-9 (all p≤0.05). It had no effect on caspase-3 activity, or on MCP-1, MIP-2, GRO/KC or COX-2 expression compared to control. Administration of tPA together with neuroserpin decreased LDH release, active MMP-9 and MIP-2 (all p≤0.05) and showed no effect on MCP-1, GRO/KC or COX-2 compared to control. Our results suggest that neuroprotective activity of neuroserpin involves attenuation on tPA-mediated mechanisms of inflammation and BBB disruption after brain ischemia.Neurochemistry International 02/2011; 58(3):337-43. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and serotonin (5-HT)-mediated cell signaling, neuronal survival enhancement, and reduced neuronal death in brainstem during liver injury followed by active liver regeneration have a critical role in maintaining routine bodily functions. In the present study, GABAB and 5-HT2A receptor functional regulation, interrelated actions of neuronal survival factors, and expression of apoptotic factors in the brainstem during GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles-induced active liver regeneration in partially hepatectomized rats were evaluated. Partially hepatectomized rats were treated with the nanoparticles, and receptor assays and confocal microscopic studies of GABAB and 5-HT2A receptors, gene expression studies of GABAB and 5-HT2A receptors, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Akt-1, phospholipase C, Bax, and caspase-8 were performed with the brainstems of experimental animals. A significant decrease in GABAB and 5-HT2A receptor numbers and gene expressions denoted a homeostatic adjustment by the brain to trigger the sympathetic innervations during elevated DNA synthesis in the liver. The neuronal apoptosis resulting from the loss of liver function after partial hepatectomy was minimized by nanoparticle treatment in rats compared with rats with no treatment during regeneration. This was confirmed from the gene expression patterns of NF-κB, TNF-α, Akt-1, phospholipase C, Bax, and caspase-8. The present study revealed the potential of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles for increasing neuronal survival in the brainstem during liver injury following regeneration, which avoids many neuropsychiatric problems. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/2013; 91(9):1203-14. · 2.97 Impact Factor