TACE/ADAM17-TNF-alpha pathway in rat cortical cultures after exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation or glutamate.
ABSTRACT The role of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha convertase (TACE/ADAM17) in the adult nervous system remains poorly understood. The authors have previously demonstrated that TACE is upregulated in rat forebrain slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). They have now used rat mixed cortical cultures exposed to OGD or glutamate to study (1) TACE expression and localization, and (2) the effects of TNF-alpha release on cell viability. OGD-or glutamate-caused TNF-alpha release, an effect that was blocked by the TACE inhibitor BB3103 (BB) (0.1-1 micromol/L; control: 1.67 +/- 0.59; OGD: 6.59 +/- 1.52; glutamate: 3.38 +/- 0.66; OGD +/- BB0.1: 3.23 +/- 0.67; OGD +/- BB1: 1.33 +/- 0.22 pg/mL, n = 6, P < 0.05). Assay of TACE activity as well as Western blot showed that TACE expression is increased in OGD-or glutamate-exposed cells. In control cultures, TACE immunoreactivity was present in some microglial cells, whereas, after OGD or glutamate, TACE immunostaining appeared in most microglial cells and in some astrocytes. Conversely, BB3103 (0.1 micromol/L) caused apoptosis after glutamate exposure as shown by annexin and Hoechst 33342 staining and caspase-3 activity, an effect mimicked by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 (caspase activity: glutamate: 5.1 +/- 0.1; glutamate + BB: 7.8 +/- 0.8; glutamate + MG: 11.9 +/- 0.5 pmol. min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 4, P < 0.05), suggesting that translocation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB mediates TNF-alpha-induced antiapoptotic effect. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, in rat mixed neuronal-glial cortical cultures exposed to OGD or glutamate, (1) TACE/ADAM17 activity accounts for the majority of TNF-alpha shedding, (2) an increase in glial TACE expression contributes to the rise in TNF-alpha, and (3) TNF-alpha release in this setting inhibits apoptosis via activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.
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ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) involves primary and secondary mechanisms of injury. Though both mechanisms are involved in the neurological dysfunction in SCI most research however has focused on understanding the pathophysiology of the secondary damage and reducing the amount of delayed cell loss following SCI. Research has revealed extensive therapeutic windows in secondary injury mechanisms that could be manipulated by appropriate exogenous interventions. In contrast, primary injury to the cord happens unexpectedly, and it is associated with inevitable delays; ranging from several hours to days before care intervention is administered. Therefore, apart from achieving patient's stabilization, the therapeutic window in the primary phase of injury is essentially obliterated, and consequently inaccessible for specialized. Coupled to this, the exacerbating effect of secondary injury mechanisms has generally commenced before the specialist intervention. Hence, knowledge of secondary injury mechanisms and their intricacies are invaluable requisite for any tailored therapeutic strategy in the persistent search for a cure of SCI. There are about 25 well-established secondary injury mechanisms in SCI, and are found in bits or clusters in literature. A vast number of these articles are not open access. Besides, articles with a comprehensive catalog of these mechanisms are not readily available. This article has cataloged over twenty five identified secondary mechanisms of injury in the spinal cord in an open access portal, and is particularly versatile for starters in spinal cord injury research.Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis 01/2011; 71(2):281-99. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that a short ischemic event (ischemic preconditioning, IPC) results in a subsequent resistance to severe ischemia (ischemic tolerance, IT). We have recently demonstrated the role of innate immunity and in particular of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in brain ischemia. Several evidences suggest that TLR4 might also be involved in IT. Therefore, we have now used an in vivo model of IPC to investigate whether TLR4 is involved in IT. A 6-min temporary bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion was used for focal IPC and it was performed on TLR4-deficient mice (C57BL/10ScNJ) and animals that express TLR4 normally (C57BL/10ScSn). To assess the ability of IPC to induce IT, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed 48 h after IPC. Stroke outcome was evaluated by determination of infarct volume and assessment of neurological scores. IPC caused neuroprotection as shown by a reduction in infarct volume and better outcome in mice expressing TLR4 normally. TLR4-deficient mice showed less IPC-induced neuroprotection than wild-type animals. Western blot analysis of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) showed an up-regulation in the expression of these proteins in both substrains of mice measured 18, 24 and 48 h after IPC, being higher in mice with TLR4. Similarly, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation was observed 18, 24 and 48 h after IPC, being more intense in TLR4-expressing mice. These data demonstrate that TLR4 signalling is involved in brain tolerance as shown by the difference in the percentage of neuroprotection produced by IPC between ScSn and ScNJ (60% vs. 18%). The higher expression of TNF-alpha, iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 and NF-kappaB activation in mice expressing TLR4 is likely to participate in this endogenous neuroprotective effect.Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2009; 109(1):287-94. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05972.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As a metalloproteinase specialized in releasing membrane-tethered proteins, A Disintegrin and A Metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), also known as Tumor necrosis factor-alpha Converting Enzyme (TACE) or less commonly CD156q, has received more than its share of attention. This is mainly because major contemporary pathologies like cancer, inflammatory and vascular diseases seem to be connected to its cleavage abilities. The involvement in such a broad spectrum of diseases is due to the large variety of substrates that ADAM17 is able to cut. ADAM17 can activate growth factors or inactivate receptors by shedding their extracellular domain from the cell membrane. Similarly, it can detach cells by cleaving cell adhesion molecules. Some of these proteolytic events are part of cleavage cascades known as Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis and lead to intracellular signaling. It is therefore clear that ADAM17 literally fulfills a key role in diverse processes and pathologies, making it a prime target for developing therapies. Here we review the role of ADAM17 in health and disease and highlight the problems to overcome for ADAM17 to mature towards a therapeutically valuable target.Current pharmaceutical design 02/2009; 15(20):2319-35. DOI:10.2174/138161209788682398 · 3.29 Impact Factor