The effect of Gd-DTPA on T(1)-weighted choline signal in human brain tumours.
ABSTRACT The influence of Gd-DTPA on T(1)-weighted (T(1)W) proton MR spectra has been investigated in 19 patients with histologically verified low (n = 13) or high-grade (n = 6) gliomas. Repeat measurements were performed on 9 patients (7 low-grade and 2 high-grade), with 28 examinations performed in total. Comparison of spectra obtained before and after 0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA showed contrast agent induced broadening of the choline signal without significant signal area change. Lack of enhancement of the choline signal with the T(1)-weighted acquisitions implies that the contrast agent and the trimethylamine-containing species do not undergo significant direct interaction. Contrast agent induced changes in the choline signal observed in this and previous studies may, therefore, be attributable to T2*/susceptibility-based effects.
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ABSTRACT: Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, namely MR spectroscopy and perfusion MR imaging, have provided the researcher with new tools for evaluating leukodystrophies. They have allowed for better characterization of diseases, improved sensitivity of detection, and a means of tracking brain metabolites and perfusion in vivo to monitor therapy or disease progression. In some cases, these techniques also allow for the specific diagnosis of certain abnormalities. Evaluation of leukodystrophies with MR spectroscopy has advanced from the simple observation of metabolic derangements and correlation to pathophysiology to the prognostication of patient clinical outcome and the in vivo tracking of metabolic abnormalities after therapeutic intervention. We aim to describe how these technologies can aid the clinician in the preventative, diagnostic, and treatment schemes in these diseases.12/2004: pages 239-260;
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ABSTRACT: Sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of conventional MR imaging in predicting glioma grade are not high. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) measurements derived from perfusion MR imaging and metabolite ratios from proton MR spectroscopy are useful in predicting glioma grade. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of perfusion MR imaging and MR spectroscopy compared with conventional MR imaging in grading primary gliomas. One hundred sixty patients with a primary cerebral glioma underwent conventional MR imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted perfusion MR imaging, and proton MR spectroscopy. Gliomas were graded as low or high based on conventional MR imaging findings. The rCBV measurements were obtained from regions of maximum perfusion. Metabolite ratios (choline [Cho]/creatine [Cr], Cho/N-acetylaspartate [NAA], and NAA/Cr) were measured at a TE of 144 ms. Tumor grade determined with the three methods was then compared with that from histopathologic grading. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine optimum thresholds for tumor grading. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for identifying high-grade gliomas were also calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for determining a high-grade glioma with conventional MR imaging were 72.5%, 65.0%, 86.1%, and 44.1%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated a threshold value of 1.75 for rCBV to provide sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 95.0%, 57.5%, 87.0%, and 79.3%, respectively. Threshold values of 1.08 and 1.56 for Cho/Cr and 0.75 and 1.60 for Cho/NAA provided the minimum C2 and C1 errors, respectively, for determining a high-grade glioma. The combination of rCBV, Cho/Cr, and Cho/NAA resulted in sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 93.3%, 60.0%, 87.5%, and 75.0%, respectively. Significant differences were noted in the rCBV and Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA, and NAA/Cr ratios between low- and high-grade gliomas (P <.0001,.0121,.001, and.0038, respectively). The rCBV measurements and metabolite ratios both individually and in combination can increase the sensitivity and PPV when compared with conventional MR imaging alone in determining glioma grade. The rCBV measurements had the most superior diagnostic performance (either with or without metabolite ratios) in predicting glioma grade. Threshold values can be used in a clinical setting to evaluate tumors preoperatively for histologic grade and provide a means for guiding treatment and predicting postoperative patient outcome.American Journal of Neuroradiology 24(10):1989-98. · 3.17 Impact Factor
Article: [MR spectroscopy in brain tumors].[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: MRT allows the anatomical visualization of intracerebral space-occupying lesions, and when magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used in routine clinical practice it can give more information and be helpful in the diagnosis of such lesions. In MRS with long echo times for nerve tissue there are five metabolites that are particularly significant: N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine, choline, lactate, and lipids. NAA levels are lowered in the presence of intracerebral tumors. Creatine is lowered in situations of hypermetabolic metabolism and elevated in hypometabolic conditions, but remains constant in many pathologic states and can be used as a reliable reference value. With malignant tumors there are usually elevated choline concentrations, reflecting increased membrane synthesis and a higher cell turnover. The lactate level rises following a switch in metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic glycolysis, and this is frequently observed in the presence of malignant tumors. The occurrence of lipid peaks in a tumor spectrum suggests the presence of tissue necroses or metastases. There are typical constellations that are seen on MRS for individual tumors, which are discussed in detail in the present paper.Der Radiologe 07/2007; 47(6):520-9. · 0.47 Impact Factor