Environmental fate of metalaxyl and chlorothalonil applied to a bentgrass putting green under southern California climatic conditions.
ABSTRACT Putting greens usually receive high inputs of fertilizers and pesticides to meet the high demand for visual quality and to overcome the stress from close mowing and traffic. In this study, two commonly used fungicides, metalaxyl (methyl N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate) and chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile), were evaluated for their partitioning and persistence in a bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds) putting green under southern California climatic conditions. The putting green site was constructed according to the US Golf Association (USGA) specifications. Lysimeter assemblies installed at the center of each plot were used to monitor the leachate, flux chambers were used to measure volatilization, clippings were collected to determine the residues on grass, and soil cores were sampled to determine residues in the soil profile. Results showed that cumulative volatilization loss accounted for 0.10 and 0.02%, clipping removal 0.11 and 0.13%, and cumulative leaching 0.71 and 0.002% of the applied metalaxyl and chlorothalonil, respectively. The two fungicides were mainly found in the top 10 cm of the soil profile due to the high organic carbon content in the thatch and mat layers. The dissipation half-life was 1.4 days for metalaxyl and 4.9 days for chlorothalonil on grass, shorter than those found in agricultural fields. This study showed that, under normal turf management practices, the offsite transport of the parent fungicides was minimal. Future research should focus on investigating the fate and mobility of the metabolites of the fungicides.
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ABSTRACT: An environmental fate study was conducted in a citrus orchard plot in València (Spain) in the fall of 1993. Dissipation and distribution of atrazine, simazine, chlorpyrifos and tetradifon residues following their controlled addition for agricultural purposes in a mediterranean red soil (Luvic Calcisol, Rhodoxeralf) were evaluated. During a two-month period, the amounts of applied pesticides in different soil layers (0-0.05, 0.05-0.22, 0.22-0.42, and 0.42-0.52 m) were monitored. In addition, information on soils, weather and agricultural practice were collected. Degradation half-lives were calculated, assuming zero-order kinetics: 11 days for atrazine, 12 days for simazine, 10 days for chlorpyrifos, and 18 for tetradifon. The distribution through the soil profile shows that the pesticide concentrations were always highest in the upper layer (0-0.05 m) of soil, and that atrazine was the most mobile of all the four pesticides investigated.Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 06/1997; 32(4):346-52. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The only thing all pesticides have in common is that they are used to control pests. Otherwise, they come from almost every imaginable class of chemical. Everyone associated with pesticide use--farmers, Extension, EPA, state regulatory agencies, manufacturers, and environmentalists--needs information that will allow them to distinguish between pesticides that may be a problem as pollutants in certain situations, and those which may not. There are five basic properties that, when combined with information about site and use, provide much information about the potential of a pesticide to be a pollutant. These five properties are solubility in water, volatility, soil sorption tendency, persistence, and ionization potential. We have compiled the most complete collection of these properties available, using others' compilations but verifying values from the primary literature in many cases. A complete primary literature search was not done. For each parameter we suggest a "Selected Value" which we believe to be the best available, recognizing, however, that persistence and soil sorption are sensitive to specific site conditions. These Selected Values are being incorporated into pesticide environmental-impact risk assessment procedures by state and federal agencies, and are considered to be consensus values. However, there is a serious potential for misuse of these data, particularly the error of using small differences between active ingredients to make regulatory distinctions between them. The ability to relate these data to environmental impact is an essential need and is improving, but is currently at a primitive level.Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology 02/1992; 123:1-155. · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the principal uses of the fungicide, chlorothalonil, is control of foliar peanut diseases. Recent assessments indicate its runoff from treated fields in southeastern states presents risks to aquatic life. Two factors that control its runoff are how much reaches soil surfaces and degradation rates. To address these questions and to evaluate accumulation and decay of key metabolites, soil samples (0-2 cm) were collected after seven chlorothalonil applications on experimental peanut plots in south central Georgia during the 1999 growing season. At the start of and during laboratory incubations, samples were analyzed for the parent and degradates by HPLC-PDA-APCI-MS. The maximum observed residue levels were after the second application, after which canopy closure reduced soil deposition from later applications to 5-10% of applied amounts. After the last spray, < 5% of the cumulative chlorothalonil applied was detected in the soil. Foliar interception and dissipation and rapid soil degradation contributed to low residue levels. Soil half-lives were < 1-3.5 days for chlorothalonil and 10-22 days for its principal degradate, 4-hydroxychlorothalonil. Other daughter and granddaughter products were detected, some of which accumulated during the growing season. Results emphasize the plant canopy role in controlling the amount of fungicide sprays that reach soil surfaces and suggest concentration-dependent chlorothalonil degradation with degradation rates increasing as soil loading decreases. The study indicates that the 30-day field half-life often used for risk assessments of this pesticide is too long for one of its most important agronomic uses, i.e., in southeastern peanut production. It also indicates that the principal metabolites are more persistent than the parent, and more study is needed to identify and quantify their fate pathways.Environmental Science and Technology 08/2001; 35(13):2634-9. · 5.26 Impact Factor