Enhancing cognitive function across the life span.
ABSTRACT Glucose administration regulates many neural and behavioral processes in rodents, including learning and memory. Given the important role of glucose in brain function and the safety of glucose as a treatment, we have investigated the effects of glucose administration in humans of different ages. In previous work, we examined the effects of early-morning glucose consumption on cognitive functions in elderly individuals. In this population, glucose enhanced performance on specific measures, particularly on those tasks where mild age-related deficits appear (e.g., verbal declarative memory). Interestingly, glucose failed to enhance cognitive functions in young adults. Our recent work has examined three issues related to glucose enhancement of cognition: First, is glucose effective only in reversing impairments or can it also facilitate performance in highly functioning individuals? Second, are glucose effects dependent either on time of day or on interactions with other meals? Third, are typical breakfast foods as effective as glucose in enhancing cognitive performance? Our findings suggest that glucose can improve memory in highly functioning populations as it does in populations with deficits. However, enhancement by glucose may require sufficient levels of task difficulty and of blood glucose. In addition, like glucose, early morning consumption of cereal can improve performance on some cognitive tests. These results have important implications for the nature of glucose facilitation of memory and for the role of dietary factors in performance of many daily activities.
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Neuroscience has fundamentally changed the understanding of learning and memory within recent years. Here, the authors discuss a number of specific areas where they believe new understanding of the CNS from basic science is having a fundamental impact on neurorehabilitation and is leading to new therapeutic approaches. These areas have constituted a basis for development of some basic principles for neurorehabilitation: Optimal rehabilitation should involve (a) active (patient) participation in the training, (b) training that does not only involve many repetitions, but also continues to challenge the skill of the training person, (c) motivation and reward, (d) intensive training and practice over a long time, (e) careful organization of the training in relation to other activities, and (f) incorporation of other potentially beneficial parameters such as sleep and diet. It should in this relation also be pointed out that albeit neurorehabilitation may be predicted to have the most optimal effect early in life and as soon after injury as possible, there is no reason to believe that beneficial effects of training may not be obtained late in life or several years after injury.Journal of Motor Behavior 01/2015; 47(1):7-17. DOI:10.1080/00222895.2014.931273 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although previous research has associated the glycaemic load (GL) of a meal with cognitive functioning, typically the macro-nutrient composition of the meals has differed, raising a question as to whether the response was to GL or to the energy, nutrients or particular foods consumed. Therefore, the present study contrasted two breakfasts that offered identical levels of energy and macro-nutrients, although they differed in GL.European Journal of Nutrition 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00394-014-0779-8 · 3.84 Impact Factor
Article: Ageless™ Clinical Trial Summary[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The emerging scientific discipline known as anti-aging has focused primarily on the protection and repair of the body. New technologies on the horizon include stem cells, gene therapies, nanotechnology and a variety of natural products and pharmaceuticals for maintaining anabolic drive, immunity and cardiovascular health. Studies show, however, that 40% of those reaching age 85 will suffer from significant brain degeneration or senility. It is imperative, therefore, that more attention and research be directed towards protecting and maintaining optimal brain function. One of the most important advances in this arena was the research of James Joseph and colleagues, published in the Journal of Neuroscience in 1998. 1 These scientists demonstrated that oxidative stress is a major factor in age-related neurodegenerative disease, and showed in a rat model that many of its deleterious effects could be retarded or even reversed by feeding concentrates of anthocyanin-rich fruits, primarily blueberries. The proposed mechanisms of action included effective quenching of free radicals, improved membrane fluidity and the ultimate restoration of youthful balance, coordination, memory and learning capacity. Importantly, feeding blueberry concentrate spared vitamin E, so that vitamin E levels in the brain were higher than control animals. This is a significant finding, as increased vitamin E has been associated with decreased risk for Alzheimers disease. 2 The development of MetaBerry was based on the above research, including anthocyanin-rich concentrates of blueberry, cranberry, black cherry and concord grape. 20 mg of alpha lipoic acid and 20 mg of a standardized concentrate of ginkgo biloba were added per one-ounce serving and the mixture is delivered in a liquid aloe concentrate. The ORAC (the recognized test for anti-oxidant potency) score as determined by independent laboratory testing is 3,129 ORAC units per fluid ounce. Keep in mind that the ORAC value of the average American's total dietary intake is 1,200 to 1,500 per day.