Age-related loss of rooting capability in Arabidopsis thaliana and its reversal by peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif.
ABSTRACT We describe here an experimental system to study the age-related decline of adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh), ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler). The system is based on the different rooting capacity of hypocotyls from de-rooted juvenile (12-day-old) and adult (26-day-old) plants. Hypocotyls from de-rooted juvenile plants rooted readily within a week of culture, and the rooting process was not dependent on exogenous auxin. In contrast, hypocotyls from de-rooted adult plants rooted poorly and only after longer periods of time. Exogenously applied auxin had no effect on rooting of hypocotyls from de-rooted adult plants. Rooting capacity, although correlated with the transition to flowering, did not depend on this transition. Root induction declined in a similar manner when the transition to flowering was delayed, either genetically with the fve mutant or physiologically with short days. The results showed that rooting of hypocotyls from de-rooted adult plants depended on the effect of peptides containing the RGD motif. Both the percentage of rooting and the number of roots were largely increased when the hypocotyls were treated transiently with the RGD peptide. The effect of the RGD peptide was a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for rooting of hypocotyls from de-rooted adult plants.
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ABSTRACT: The ability to form adventitious roots (AR) is an economically important trait that is lost during the juvenile-to-mature phase change in woody plants. Auxin treatment, which generally promotes rooting in juvenile cuttings, is often ineffective when applied to mature cuttings. The molecular basis for this phenomenon in Eucalyptus grandis was addressed here.BMC Genomics 09/2014; 15(1):826. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-826 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Adventitious rooting is an organogenic process by which roots are induced from differentiated cells other than those specified to develop roots. In forest tree species, age and maturation are barriers to adventitious root formation by stem cuttings. The mechanisms behind the respecification of fully differentiated progenitor cells, which underlies adventitious root formation, are unknown.ResultsHere, the GRAS gene family in pine is characterized and the expression of a subset of these genes during adventitious rooting is reported. Comparative analyses of protein structures showed that pine GRAS members are conserved compared with their relatives in angiosperms. Relatively high GRAS mRNA levels were measured in non-differentiated proliferating embryogenic cultures and during embryo development. The mRNA levels of putative GRAS family transcription factors, including Pinus radiata¿s SCARECROW (SCR), PrSCR, and SCARECROW-LIKE (SCL) 6, PrSCL6, were significantly reduced or non-existent in adult tissues that no longer had the capacity to form adventitious roots, but were maintained or induced after the reprogramming of adult cells in rooting-competent tissues. A subset of genes, SHORT-ROOT (PrSHR), PrSCL1, PrSCL2, PrSCL10 and PrSCL12, was also expressed in an auxin-, age- or developmental-dependent manner during adventitious root formation.Conclusions The GRAS family of pine has been characterized by analyzing protein structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved motifs and gene expression patterns. Individual genes within each group have acquired different and specialized functions, some of which could be related to the competence and reprogramming of adult cells to form adventitious roots.BMC Plant Biology 12/2014; 14(1):1583. DOI:10.1186/s12870-014-0354-8 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cellular plasticity refers, among others, to the capability of differentiated cells to switch the differentiation process and acquire new fates. One way by which plant cell plasticity is manifested is through de novo regeneration of organs from somatic differentiated cells in an ectopic location. However, switching the developmental program of adult cells prior to organ regeneration is difficult in many plant species, especially in forest tree species. In these species, a decline in the capacity to regenerate shoots, roots, or embryos from somatic differentiated cells is associated with tree age and maturation. The decline in the ability to form adventitious roots from stem cuttings is one of the most dramatic effects of maturation, and has been the subject of investigations on the basic nature of the process. Cell fate switches, both in plants and animals, are characterized by remarkable changes in the pattern of gene expression, as cells switch from the characteristic expression pattern of a somatic cell to a new one directing a new developmental pathway. Therefore, determining the way by which cells reset their gene expression pattern is crucial to understand cellular plasticity. The presence of specific cellular signaling pathways or tissue-specific factors underlying the establishment, maintenance, and redirection of gene expression patterns in the tissues involved in adventitious root formation could be crucial for cell fate switch and for the control of age-dependent cellular plasticity.Frontiers in Plant Science 07/2014; 5:310. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2014.00310 · 3.64 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.