Article

Glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor activation engages bad and glycogen synthase kinase-3 in a protein kinase A-dependent manner and prevents apoptosis following inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 08/2002; 277(28):24896-906. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M201358200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Activation of glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor (GLP-2R) signaling promotes expansion of the mucosal epithelium indirectly via activation of growth and anti-apoptotic pathways; however, the cellular mechanisms coupling direct GLP-2R activation to cell survival remain poorly understood. We now demonstrate that GLP-2, in a cycloheximide-insensitive manner, enhanced survival in baby hamster kidney cells stably transfected with the rat GLP-2R; reduced mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux; and attenuated the caspase-dependent cleavage of Akt, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and beta-catenin following inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) by LY294002. The prosurvival effects of GLP-2 on LY294002-induced cell death were independent of Akt, p90(Rsk), or p70 S6 kinase activation; were mimicked by forskolin; and were abrogated by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) activity. GLP-2 inhibited activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) through phosphorylation at Ser(21) in GSK-3alpha and at Ser(9) in GSK-3beta in a PI3K-independent, PKA-dependent manner. GLP-2 reduced LY294002-induced mitochondrial association of endogenous Bad and Bax and stimulated phosphorylation of a transfected Bad fusion protein at Ser(155) in a PI3K-independent, but H89-sensitive manner, a modification known to suppress Bad pro-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that GLP-2R signaling enhances cell survival independently of PI3K/Akt by inhibiting the activity of a subset of pro-apoptotic downstream targets of Akt in a PKA-dependent manner.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
60 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac remodeling was shown to be associated with reduced gap junction expression after myocardial infarction. A reduction in gap junctional proteins between myocytes may trigger ventricular arrhythmia. Therefore, we investigated whether N-acetylcysteine exerted antiarrhythmic effect by preserving connexin43 expression in postinfarcted rats, focusing on cAMP downstream molecules such as protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Male Wistar rats after ligating coronary artery were randomized to either vehicle, or N-acetylcysteine for 4 weeks starting 24 hours after operation. Infarct size was similar between two groups. Compared with vehicle, cAMP levels were increased by N-acetylcysteine treatment after infarction. Myocardial connexin43 expression was significantly decreased in vehicle-treated infarcted rats compared with sham operated rats. Attenuated connexin43 expression and function were blunted after administering N-acetylcysteine, assessed by immunofluorescent analysis, dye coupling, Western blotting, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR of connexin43. Arrhythmic scores during programmed stimulation in the N-acetylcysteine-treated rats were significantly lower than those treated with vehicle. In an ex vivo study, enhanced connexin43 levels afforded by N-acetylcysteine were partially blocked by either H-89 (a PKA inhibitor) or brefeldin A (an Epac-signaling inhibitor) and completely blocked when H-89 and brefeldin A were given in combination. Addition of either the PKA specific activator N6Bz or Epac specific activator 8-CPT did not have additional increased connexin43 levels compared with rats treated with lithium chloride alone. These findings suggest that N-acetylcysteine protects ventricular arrhythmias by attenuating reduced connexin43 expression and function via both PKA- and Epac-dependent pathways, which converge through the inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71878. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Propagation of a Gaussian beam in an absorbing waveguide is analyzed for cubic–quintic and saturable media taking into account both linear and nonlinear absorption. A “collective variable approach” technique, based on trial functions, is used to solve the general nonlinear Schrodinger equation. In the absence of losses, we construct a diagram which defines regions of oscillatory and diffractive beam propagation for both types of media, and also a diagram that compares bistable behavior in such media. We show that if the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients are small, the behavior of the oscillations of the beam width on propagation allows one to distinguish between cubic–quintic and saturable media. By reversing the sign of the linear absorption, we analyze the behavior of the beam propagation in media with gain and nonlinear absorption. In cubic–quintic media, the energy reaches a plateau for certain ratios of gain to losses, whereas for saturable media, the energy increases throughout the beam propagation.
    Optics Communications 10/2011; 284(21):5212-5217. · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33-amino-acid proglucagon-derived peptide secreted from enteroendocrine L cells. GLP-2 circulates at low basal levels in the fasting period, and plasma levels rise rapidly after food ingestion. Renal clearance and enzymatic inactivation control the elimination of bioactive GLP-2. GLP-2 increases mesenteric blood flow and activates proabsorptive pathways in the gut, facilitating nutrient absorption. GLP-2 also enhances gut barrier function and induces proliferative and cytoprotective pathways in the small bowel. The actions of GLP-2 are transduced via a single G protein-coupled receptor (GLP-2R), expressed predominantly within the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of GLP-2R signaling increases susceptibility to gut injury and impairs the adaptive mucosal response to refeeding. Sustained augmentation of GLP-2R signaling reduces the requirement for parenteral nutrition in human subjects with short-bowel syndrome. Hence GLP-2 integrates nutrient-derived signals to optimize mucosal integrity and energy absorption. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology Volume 76 is February 10, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Physiology 10/2013; · 19.55 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
12 Downloads
Available from
Jun 11, 2014