Article

Lonczak HS, Abbott RD, Hawkins JD, Kosterman R, Catalano RF. Effects of the Seattle social development project on sexual behavior, pregnancy, birth, and sexually transmitted disease outcomes by age 21 years. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.156(5):438-447

Social Development Research Group, 9725 3rd Ave NE, Suite 401, Seattle, WA 98115, USA.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.25). 06/2002; 156(5):438-47. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.156.5.438
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the long-term effects of the full Seattle Social Development Project intervention on sexual behavior and associated outcomes assessed at age 21 years.
Nonrandomized controlled trial with long-term follow-up.
Public elementary schools serving children from high-crime areas in Seattle, Wash.
Ninety-three percent of the fifth-grade students enrolled in either the full-intervention or control group were successfully interviewed at age 21 years (n = 144 [full intervention] and n = 205 [control]).
In-service teacher training, parenting classes, and social competence training for children.
Self-report measures of all outcomes.
The full-intervention group reported significantly fewer sexual partners and experienced a marginally reduced risk for initiating intercourse by age 21 years as compared with the control group. Among females, treatment group status was associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of both becoming pregnant and experiencing a birth by age 21 years. Among single individuals, a significantly increased probability of condom use during last intercourse was predicted by full-intervention group membership; a significant ethnic group x intervention group interaction indicated that after controlling for socioeconomic status, single African Americans were especially responsive to the intervention in terms of this outcome. Finally, a significant treatment x ethnic group interaction indicated that among African Americans, being in the full-intervention group predicted a reduced probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease by age 21 years.
A theory-based social development program that promotes academic success, social competence, and bonding to school during the elementary grades can prevent risky sexual practices and adverse health consequences in early adulthood.

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    • "These behaviours co-vary and co-occur in adolescence and are influenced by social (e.g., attachment to parents or lovers) and contextual variables (e.g., situational problems). The social developmental model (Lonczak et al., 2002) refers to multiple levels or sources of influence on adolescent development (e.g., surrounding context, parents' and the child's emotional and social skills) that promote or hinder adolescent social development . Together, these factors may influence teenagers to develop risky sexual behaviours, to use psychoactive substances, or to become involved in delinquent activities. "
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    • "The study included a universal preventive intervention during the elementary school years aimed at reducing health risk behaviors in youth (Hawkins et al., 1999) and was designed as a nonrandomized controlled trial. Prior examinations of the data have shown that the intervention had signifi cant long-term effects on some of the markers of the transition to adulthood, including a lower rate of early parenting, greater engagement in work and school, and decreased crime and drug use by age 21 (Hawkins et al., 2005; Lonczak et al., 2002), and higher educational and economic attainment by age 27 (Hawkins et al., 2008). Although differences in prevalences and means have been observed between the intervention and control groups, prior analyses have shown few differences in the covariances among variables between the groups (Hill et al., 2005; McCarty et al., 2009). "
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    • "For both men and women, more frequent substance use in adolescence, having been arrested during adolescence, and family poverty were significantly associated with a lower probability of being on the third pathway, characterized by investment in postsecondary education and postponement of marriage and living with children, than on one of the other two pathways. Despite findings that intervention status was associated with some of the indicators of the pathways (Hawkins, Kosterman et al., 2005; Lonczak et al., 2002), intervention status was not associated with the multidimensional latent pathways in this study. "
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