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Cannon M, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, et al. Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 06/2002; 59(5):449-56. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.59.5.449
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Childhood developmental abnormalities have been previously described in schizophrenia. It is not known, however, whether childhood developmental impairment is specific to schizophrenia or is merely a marker for a range of psychiatric outcomes.
A 1-year birth cohort (1972-1973) of 1037 children enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study was assessed at biennial intervals between ages 3 and 11 years on emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems, motor and language development, and intelligence. At age 11 years, children were asked about psychotic symptoms. At age 26 years, DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Study members having schizophreniform disorder (n = 36 [3.7%]) were compared with healthy controls and also with groups diagnosed as having mania (n = 20 [2%]) and nonpsychotic anxiety or depression disorders (n = 278 [28.5%]) on childhood variables.
Emotional problems and interpersonal difficulties were noted in children who later fulfilled diagnostic criteria for any of the adult psychiatric outcomes assessed. However, significant impairments in neuromotor, receptive language, and cognitive development were additionally present only among children later diagnosed as having schizophreniform disorder. Developmental impairments also predicted self-reported psychotic symptoms at age 11 years. These impairments were independent of the effects of socioeconomic, obstetric, and maternal factors.
The results provide evidence for an early-childhood, persistent, pan-developmental impairment that is specifically associated with schizophreniform disorder and that predicts psychotic symptoms in childhood and adulthood.

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    • "The continuum of psychosis does not concern only the phenomenological similarities between the experiences laying on its extremes, but they were also associated with similar risk factors, and similar cognitive [10] [11] [12] [13] [14], emotional [15] [16] and personality traits [17] [18] [19] [20] as the clinically relevant psychotic symptoms. What is more, the recent researches showed that the psychotic – like experiences may have similar neural correlates as psychotic disorders. "
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    • "For example, Chapman et al. (1994) initially demonstrated that adolescents who rated high on scales of magical ideation and perceptual aberration had high rates of psychotic outcomes 10 years later. These results have been further replicated in several distinct cohorts (Poulton et al., 2000; Cannon et al., 2002; Hanssen et al., 2005; Welham et al., 2009). Despite the routine observation that a subset of children who experience multiple risk factors are much more likely to experience adverse psychological outcomes than those with single risk factors (Rutter, 1979; Rutter, 1981), to date there are a paucity of data on the cumulative effects of psychosis-related risk factors. "
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    • "Although other studies of PEs in general population samples have described associations with IQ ( Cannon et al . 2002a ; Horwood et al . 2008 ) , developmental delay ( Cannon et al . 2002a ) , autistic traits ( Bevan Jones et al . 2012 ) and birth complications ( Zammit et al . 2009 ) , none of these have examined whether associations with PEs are different from those for depression within multivariate models that take into account the co - morbidity or correlation of these outcomes . One of the main limitations of our st"
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