Cannon M, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, et al. Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 06/2002; 59(5):449-56. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.59.5.449
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Childhood developmental abnormalities have been previously described in schizophrenia. It is not known, however, whether childhood developmental impairment is specific to schizophrenia or is merely a marker for a range of psychiatric outcomes.
A 1-year birth cohort (1972-1973) of 1037 children enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study was assessed at biennial intervals between ages 3 and 11 years on emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems, motor and language development, and intelligence. At age 11 years, children were asked about psychotic symptoms. At age 26 years, DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Study members having schizophreniform disorder (n = 36 [3.7%]) were compared with healthy controls and also with groups diagnosed as having mania (n = 20 [2%]) and nonpsychotic anxiety or depression disorders (n = 278 [28.5%]) on childhood variables.
Emotional problems and interpersonal difficulties were noted in children who later fulfilled diagnostic criteria for any of the adult psychiatric outcomes assessed. However, significant impairments in neuromotor, receptive language, and cognitive development were additionally present only among children later diagnosed as having schizophreniform disorder. Developmental impairments also predicted self-reported psychotic symptoms at age 11 years. These impairments were independent of the effects of socioeconomic, obstetric, and maternal factors.
The results provide evidence for an early-childhood, persistent, pan-developmental impairment that is specifically associated with schizophreniform disorder and that predicts psychotic symptoms in childhood and adulthood.

  • Source
    • "The continuum of psychosis does not concern only the phenomenological similarities between the experiences laying on its extremes, but they were also associated with similar risk factors, and similar cognitive [10] [11] [12] [13] [14], emotional [15] [16] and personality traits [17] [18] [19] [20] as the clinically relevant psychotic symptoms. What is more, the recent researches showed that the psychotic – like experiences may have similar neural correlates as psychotic disorders. "
  • Source
    • "For example, Chapman et al. (1994) initially demonstrated that adolescents who rated high on scales of magical ideation and perceptual aberration had high rates of psychotic outcomes 10 years later. These results have been further replicated in several distinct cohorts (Poulton et al., 2000; Cannon et al., 2002; Hanssen et al., 2005; Welham et al., 2009). Despite the routine observation that a subset of children who experience multiple risk factors are much more likely to experience adverse psychological outcomes than those with single risk factors (Rutter, 1979; Rutter, 1981), to date there are a paucity of data on the cumulative effects of psychosis-related risk factors. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although epidemiological studies provide strong support for demographic and environmental risk factors in psychotic disorders, few data examine how these risk factors relate to the putative aberrant neurodevelopment associated with illness. The present study examined how the accumulation of risk factors including low IQ, low parental socioeconomic status, history of adolescent cannabis use and childhood trauma, and high levels of subclinical psychotic-like experiences contributed to aberrant neurodevelopmental outcomes in 112 otherwise healthy adults recruited from the community. Participants were studied with diffusion tensor imaging, and voxel-wise statistical analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract-based spatial statistics was used to examine the relation between cumulative risk (CR) for psychosis and white matter (WM) integrity across the whole brain. Analyses revealed that higher CR was significantly associated with lower FA in a cluster in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that risk factors previously associated with psychotic disorders are associated with WM integrity even in otherwise healthy adults and may provide insight into how previously identified risk factors contribute to the structural brain abnormalities associated with psychotic illness. Prospective longitudinal studies examining the effect of risk factors on the developmental trajectory of brain WM are warranted.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 12/2014; 224(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.09.001 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Although other studies of PEs in general population samples have described associations with IQ ( Cannon et al . 2002a ; Horwood et al . 2008 ) , developmental delay ( Cannon et al . 2002a ) , autistic traits ( Bevan Jones et al . 2012 ) and birth complications ( Zammit et al . 2009 ) , none of these have examined whether associations with PEs are different from those for depression within multivariate models that take into account the co - morbidity or correlation of these outcomes . One of the main limitations of our st"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background An argument often used to support the view that psychotic experiences (PEs) in general population samples are a valid phenotype for studying the aetiology of schizophrenia is that risk factors for schizophrenia show similar patterns of association with PEs. However, PEs often co-occur with depression, and no study has explicitly tested whether risk factors for schizophrenia are shared between PEs and depression, or are psychopathology specific, while jointly modelling both outcomes. Method We used data from 7030 subjects from a birth cohort study. Depression and PEs at age 18 years were assessed using self-report questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. We compared the extent to which risk factors for schizophrenia across sociodemographic, familial, neurodevelopmental, stress–adversity, emotional–behavioural and substance use domains showed different associations with PEs and depression within bivariate models that allowed for their correlation. Results Most of the exposures examined were associated, to a similar degree, with an increased risk of both outcomes. However, whereas female sex and family history of depression showed some discrimination as potential risk factors for depression and PEs, with stronger associations in the former, markers of abnormal neurodevelopment showed stronger associations with PEs. Conclusions The argument that PEs are valid markers for studying the aetiology of schizophrenia, made simply on the basis that they share risk factors in common, is not well supported. PEs seem to be a weak index of genetic and environmental risk for schizophrenia; however, studies disentangling aetiological pathways to PEs from those impacting upon co-morbid psychopathology might provide important insights into the aetiology of psychotic disorders.
    Psychological Medicine 09/2014; 44(12):2557-2566. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714000026 · 5.43 Impact Factor
Show more