The results of microneurosurgery of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerve.
ABSTRACT The goal was to evaluate the experience of one surgical unit during a 5-year period in the evaluation and management of patients with injuries of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerve with particular reference to indications for and results of microneurosurgery.
This study includes all patients referred with a diagnosis of injury to the inferior alveolar or lingual nerve during 5-year period from January 1, 1994, to January 1, 1999. All patients were evaluated with Frey's hairs for touch and direction sense, 2-point discrimination, and hot and cold water and Minnesota thermal discs for temperature sensation. Patients who fulfilled certain specified criteria were offered microneurosurgery, and the results were evaluated for those who underwent microneurosurgery.
The study consisted of 880 consecutive patients; 96 were thought to fulfill the criteria for microneurosurgery. Of these, 51 underwent microneurosurgical exploration and repair. In 5 patients, no injury could be detected at surgery, and no corrective surgery was performed other than decompression. In 26 patients, excision and direct anastomosis were performed, and in an additional 20 patients, nerve gap reconstruction was performed. In 16 of these 20 patients, reconstruction was performed with an autogenous vein graft, and in 2 patients, a Gore-Tex tube graft (W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc, Flagstaff, AZ) was used to bridge the nerve gap. In 2 patients, an autogenous nerve was used. Thirty-four of the repairs were made on the lingual nerve, and 17 were made on the inferior alveolar nerve. With the use of established criteria, 10 patients were considered to have had a good improvement in sensation, 18 patients were considered to have had some improvement in sensation, and 22 patients were considered to have had no improvement in sensation; 1 patient reported an increase in dysesthesia after surgery. The semiobjective assessment of patients did not always correspond with the patients' subjective evaluation.
In a relatively small study in selected cases, microneurosurgery can provide a reasonable result in improving sensation in the inferior alveolar and lingual nerve. More than 50% of patients experienced some improvement in sensation, and dysesthesia did not develop after surgery in any patient who did not have it before surgery.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of subjects who achieved functional sensory recovery (FSR) 1 year after inferior alveolar or lingual nerve repair and to identify risk factors associated with failure to achieve FSR. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we developed a sample composed of subjects who underwent lingual or inferior alveolar nerve repair. Eligible subjects had at least 1 postoperative visit. For subjects having bilateral nerve repair, 1 side was selected randomly for analysis. Predictor variables were categorized as demographic, anatomic, and operative. The outcome variable was the time to FSR, measured in days. Kaplan-Meier survival methods were used to estimate the proportion of subjects with FSR at 1 year. Uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify risk factors for the failure to reach FSR at 1 year. The study sample was composed of 60 subjects with a mean age of 28.7 +/- 8.3 years; 68.3% were female. The majority (86.7%) of subjects presented with a preoperative chief complaint of altered sensation and had lingual nerve damage (93.3%) that was repaired by direct suturing (75%). The mean interval between injury and repair was 145.9 +/- 200.0 days. At 1 year postoperatively, 75% of the subjects had achieved FSR (95% confidence interval [CI]: 64% to 86%). The majority of subjects undergoing trigeminal (V(3)) nerve repair achieved functional sensory recovery within 1 year of surgical repair. Patients with evidence of neuroma formation were less likely to achieve FSR at 1 year in a multivariate model.Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 02/2007; 65(1):60-5. · 1.64 Impact Factor
Article: Etiology of lingual nerve injuries in the third molar region: a cadaver and histologic study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that different etiologies of lingual nerve damage in the third molar area will produce a different clinical and histologic appearance in the nerve. If the clinical and histologic pictures were different, it could result in different treatments being recommended. Eight preserved cadavers (16 lingual nerves) were used for this study. As far as possible, the nerves were left in situ and damaged in a way that could be envisaged during third molar surgery. In each case, the damaged sections of nerve were photographed, resected, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned in 5 mum sections, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and examined histologically. The scalpel clinically produced a clean wound with sharply defined edges; this was confirmed histologically with minimal disruption to the fascicles. The 702 fissure bur produced a ragged stretch-type injury clinically, and histologically this was confirmed with an irregular-edged border to the lesion and stretching and internal damage to the fascicles immediately adjacent to the wound. The crush injury clinically caused considerable apparent damage to the nerve, which was confirmed histologically with crushing and disruption of the fascicles and reduction to approximately 25% of their preinjury thickness. The stretch injury clinically showed no damage, but histologically showed irregular internal disruption of the fascicles over the whole area subject to stretching movements. It does appear that different modalities in nerve injury produce a different type of injury both clinically and histologically. This information has implications for both natural clinical recovery and the indications for surgical intervention. Clinical recovery may occur best with close approximation of a sharp scalpel-type wound or excision of a crushed area of nerve with reapproximation of the nerve endings, but a ragged wound caused by a fissure bur may require excision back to healthy nerve with subsequent reapproximation, whereas with the stretching injury it may be difficult to ascertain the edges and limits of the wound, and difficult to repair, and it may be most appropriate to rely on a natural healing process for the best results.Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 01/2007; 64(12):1790-4. · 1.64 Impact Factor
Article: Traumatic changes of the inferior alveolar nerve and Gasserian ganglion after removal of a mandibular third molar: report of a case.Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 01/2007; 64(12):1821-5. · 1.64 Impact Factor