In Israel, vaccination coverage against measles is high, yet seroepidemiologic studies have shown that more than 15% of the 18-year-old population were unprotected against the disease. A 2-dose program of vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella at the ages of 1 and 6 years was begun in 1990, supplemented by a measles catch-up plan for all 13-year-olds. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of antimeasles antibodies at induction to the Israel Defense Forces in the first doubly vaccinated birth-cohort.
In 1996, serum samples of 540 recruits, 339 men and 201 women, were tested for measles virus antibody. Findings were compared with surveys conducted in 1987 and 1990.
Measles antibodies were present in 95.6% (95% CI, 93.5-97.1) of the recruits. Antibody prevalence was higher in women than in men (99% vs 93.5%; P =.0096). A slightly lower seroprevalence was found in recruits born in the former Soviet Union. The results were substantially higher than the seroprevalence rates found in 1987 (73.3%) and 1990 (84.6%).
The high prevalence of antimeasles antibodies in the young adult population in Israel points to the success of the double-vaccination policy in promoting immunity against the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a systematic review of articles published during a 2-year period in 4 journals in the field of infectious diseases
to determine the extent to which the quasi-experimental study design is used to evaluate infection control and antibiotic
resistance. We evaluated studies on the basis of the following criteria: type of quasi-experimental study design used, justification
of the use of the design, use of correct nomenclature to describe the design, and recognition of potential limitations of
the design. A total of 73 articles featured a quasi-experimental study design. Twelve (16%) were associated with a quasi-experimental
design involving a control group. Three (4%) provided justification for the use of the quasi-experimental study design. Sixteen
(22%) used correct nomenclature to describe the study. Seventeen (23%) mentioned at least 1 of the potential limitations of
the use of a quasi-experimental study design. The quasi-experimental study is used frequently in studies of infection control
and antibiotic resistance. Efforts to improve the conduct and presentation of quasi-experimental studies are urgently needed
to more rigorously evaluate interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of the vaccine-preventable diseases caused by varicella, measles, rubella, and hepatitis A and B viruses in a multinational healthcare workforce.
Prospective cohort study.
A 750-bed tertiary care center located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
In compliance with hospital policy, newly recruited healthcare workers (HCWs) were enrolled in the study from September 2001 to March 2005. Serum samples were collected from all HCWs during the initial hiring process and tested for IgG antibodies against each of the 5 viral agents. Nonimmune HCWs were subsequently vaccinated at the earliest opportunity.
A total of 4,006 newly hired (international and local) employees were included in the study. All underwent serologic testing for IgG antibodies against varicella, measles, rubella, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B viruses. Of the total, 63% were female and 37% were male. Middle Eastern employees comprised 47% of the total, followed by employees from the Far East (35%), the West (10%), and Africa (8%). Forty-two percent were nurses, 27% were in administration, 18% were medical technicians, and 13% were physicians. Among the 4,006 newly hired HCWs, 14% had negative IgG antibody test results for varicella virus, 13% for measles virus, 10% for rubella virus, 33% for hepatitis A virus, and 43% for hepatitis B virus. More women than men were susceptible to hepatitis A (40% vs. 24%; P<.001), whereas more men were susceptible to hepatitis B (55% vs. 35%; P<.001). Varicella susceptibility was more common among HCWs from the Far East (19%), whereas susceptibility to measles, rubella, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B was highest among HCWs from the Middle East. Both relative youth and male sex were associated with lack of antibodies against hepatitis B virus and rubella virus. In contrast, female sex and younger age were associated with lack of antibodies against hepatitis A virus (P<.001).
Seroprevalence surveys of vaccine-preventable diseases among HCWs, although labor intensive, are invaluable in caring for a multinational workforce.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 11/2006; 27(11):1178-83. DOI:10.1086/508826 · 4.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Measles is a vaccine preventable infectious disease. Despite the widespread availability of an effective measles vaccine, the number of measles cases is noticeable in Iran. Because measles –specific antibody titer after vaccination is lower than after naturalinfection there is a concern that vaccinated persons may gradually lose protection from measles. This study was performed to examine the persistence of vaccine-induced antibody, participants with documented history of vaccination were assessed to determine thesero-prevalence and titer of measles antibody.Methods: This study was carried out in Urmia. Iran. Documented history of at least a single dose of live attenuated measles vaccine (at 9 or 15 month of age) was the inclusion criteria.Blood was collected from 835 subjects between 5 and 25 years old. The sera were tested for anti-measles IgG antibodies, by ELISA (IBL Germany). Associations between predictive factors such as demographic data, vaccination status (once or twice) with IgGsero prevalence in routine vaccinated subjects were investigated by logistic regression analysis.Results: The antibody titers in 54.76% of cases were in the range of protective level (IgG>12IU). The mean of antibody titer significantly increased after the 16th year of life.The antibody titers were higher in participants who received one dose of measles vaccine in comparison with the persons who received a booster of measles vaccine. Antibody titers were slightly higher in men than in women. On multiple logistic regression analysis, of all variables examined, only vaccination status retained a significant association with antimeasles sero-positivity rate (estimated odds ratio = 0.395 95% CI = 0.214-0.859, P<0.05).Conclusion: Elevation of antibody titer many years after vaccination is most likely due to boosting effect from repeated exposure to circulating wild virus resulting in unapparent or sub-clinical re-infection. This group of persons would be the most likely to support viral transmission in the absence of disease.
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