Inflammatory cytokines mediate C-C (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) and C-X-C (interleukin 8) chemokine expression in human pleural fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT Current knowledge implicates pleural mesothelial cells as mainly responsible for inflammatory responses in the pleural space. However, a vast body of recent evidence underscores the important role of fibroblasts in the process of inflammation in several types of tissues. We hypothesize that HPFBs (human pleural fibroblasts) play an important role in pleural responses and also when activated by bacterial endotoxin LPS (lipopolysaccharide), IL-1 beta (interleukin-1 beta), or TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) release of C-C and C-X-C chemokines-specifically, MCP-1 and IL-8. Our results show that pleural fluid-isolated human fibroblasts release IL-8 and MCP-1 upon stimulation with IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and LPS in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner. RT-PCR (reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) studies have also confirmed IL-8- and MCP-1-specific mRNA expression in activated pleural fibroblasts. On the time-dependent response curve, IL-8 was found in maximum concentrations at 144 hr, whereas MCP-1 continued to increase even after 196 hr following stimulation. IL-1 beta induced the maximum release of IL-8 (800-fold) and MCP-1 (164-fold), as compared to the controls. TNF-alpha induced a 95-fold increase in IL-8 and an 84-fold increase in MCP-1 levels, as compared to the controls. Collectively, our results show that human pleural fibroblasts contribute to the inflammatory cascade in the pleural space.
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ABSTRACT: In the event of a nuclear incident in a heavily populated area, the surge in demand for medical evaluation will likely overwhelm our emergency care system, compromising our ability to care for victims with life-threatening injuries or exposures. Therefore, there exists a need for a rapidly deployable biological assay for radiation exposure that can be performed in the field by individuals with little to no medical training. Saliva is an attractive biofluid for this purpose, due to the relative ease of its collection and the wide array of biomolecules it contains. To determine whether the human salivary proteome is responsive to ionizing radiation exposure, we characterized the abundances of salivary proteins in humans before and after total body irradiation. Using an assay panel targeting 90 analytes (growth factors, chemokines and cytokines), we identified proteins that were significantly radiation responsive in human saliva. The responses of three proteins (monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1, interleukin 8 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) were confirmed using independent immunoassay platforms and then verified and further characterized in 130 saliva samples from a completely independent set of 38 patients undergoing total body irradiation. The results demonstrate the potential for detecting radiation exposure based on analysis of human saliva.Radiation Research 04/2014; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is a prominent opportunistic infection in HIV-1-infected subjects and enhances HIV-1 replication. TB is associated with excess monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha activity in situ, both of which are implicated in transcriptional activation of HIV-1. The role of MCP-1 and TNF-alpha in activation of HIV-1 during TB and by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in mononuclear cells from HIV-1/TB subjects with pleural TB was examined here. Extremely high levels of MCP-1 (as compared with TNF-alpha) protein and mRNA were found in pleural fluid and pleural fluid mononuclear cells. Levels of MCP-1 mRNA were sustained during in vitro culture of pleural fluid mononuclear cells. Neutralization of MCP-1 (but not TNF-alpha), resulted in inhibition of MTB induced HIV-1 gag/pol mRNA. Neutralization of both MCP-1 and TNF-alpha, however, abrogated the effect of anti-MCP-1 antibody on HIV-1 mRNA. LMP-420, a small molecular transcriptional inhibitor of both TNF-alpha and MCP-1 expression, did not reduce MTB-induced HIV-1 expression. These data imply that MCP-1 activity may be critical to activation of HIV-1 at sites of TB. An interplay of MCP-1 and TNF-alpha is also suggested.Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 07/2009; 69(6):516-20. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells act as the first line of host defense against microbes by producing a range of different molecules for clearance. Chemokines facilitate the clearance of invaders through the recruitment of leukocytes. Thus, upregulation of chemokine expression represents an important innate host defense response against invading microbes such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we report that the expression of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP1) was highly induced in response to S. pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo. Among numerous virulence factors, pneumococcal pneumolysin was found to be the major factor responsible for this induction. Furthermore, MCP1 induction was mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) whose activation was controlled by MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP1). Therefore, this study reveals novel roles of pneumolysin in mediating MKP1 expression for the regulation of MCP1 expression in human epithelial cells.Molecules and Cells 09/2010; 30(3):263-70. · 2.21 Impact Factor