Inflammatory cytokines mediate C-C (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) and C-X-C (interleukin 8) chemokine expression in human pleural fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT Current knowledge implicates pleural mesothelial cells as mainly responsible for inflammatory responses in the pleural space. However, a vast body of recent evidence underscores the important role of fibroblasts in the process of inflammation in several types of tissues. We hypothesize that HPFBs (human pleural fibroblasts) play an important role in pleural responses and also when activated by bacterial endotoxin LPS (lipopolysaccharide), IL-1 beta (interleukin-1 beta), or TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) release of C-C and C-X-C chemokines-specifically, MCP-1 and IL-8. Our results show that pleural fluid-isolated human fibroblasts release IL-8 and MCP-1 upon stimulation with IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and LPS in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner. RT-PCR (reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) studies have also confirmed IL-8- and MCP-1-specific mRNA expression in activated pleural fibroblasts. On the time-dependent response curve, IL-8 was found in maximum concentrations at 144 hr, whereas MCP-1 continued to increase even after 196 hr following stimulation. IL-1 beta induced the maximum release of IL-8 (800-fold) and MCP-1 (164-fold), as compared to the controls. TNF-alpha induced a 95-fold increase in IL-8 and an 84-fold increase in MCP-1 levels, as compared to the controls. Collectively, our results show that human pleural fibroblasts contribute to the inflammatory cascade in the pleural space.
- SourceAvailable from: Janet Dawson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) has been implicated in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The G-protein-coupled receptor CCR-2B is probably the most important MCP-1 receptor in vivo, and loss of MCP-1 effector function alone is sufficient to impair monocytic trafficking in inflammation models. MCP-1 signalling appears to be a relevant target, especially in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In RA patients, MCP-1 is produced by synovial cells and infiltrating monocytes, plasma MCP-1 concentrations correlate with swollen joint count, and elevated serum MCP-1 concentrations were found in juvenile RA in patients with active disease. Modulation of MCP-1 signalling in experimental RA showed beneficial effects on inflammation and joint destruction. With respect to chronic neuroinflammation, a critical role for MCP-1 has been established in animal models for multiple sclerosis. In acute neuroinflammation, experimental evidence for a detrimental role of MCP-1 in stroke and excitotoxic injury has been found. Several selective small molecular weight CCR-2B antagonists and MCP-1-blocking antibodies have been described. The proof for the validity of targeting MCP-1 signalling in disease, however, has yet to be established in clinical trials.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 03/2003; 7(1):35-48. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells act as the first line of host defense against microbes by producing a range of different molecules for clearance. Chemokines facilitate the clearance of invaders through the recruitment of leukocytes. Thus, upregulation of chemokine expression represents an important innate host defense response against invading microbes such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we report that the expression of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP1) was highly induced in response to S. pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo. Among numerous virulence factors, pneumococcal pneumolysin was found to be the major factor responsible for this induction. Furthermore, MCP1 induction was mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) whose activation was controlled by MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP1). Therefore, this study reveals novel roles of pneumolysin in mediating MKP1 expression for the regulation of MCP1 expression in human epithelial cells.Molecules and Cells 09/2010; 30(3):263-70. · 2.21 Impact Factor
Article: Pathophysiology of the pleura.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The pleural mesothelial cell is an essential cell in maintaining the normal homeostasis of the pleural space and it is also a central component of the pathophysiologic processes affecting the pleural space. In this review, we will review the defense mechanisms of the pleural mesothelium and changes in pleural physiology as a result of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant conditions with a focus on cytokine and chemokine networks. We will also review the processes involved in the pathogenesis of pleural fibrosis.Respiration 02/2008; 75(2):121-33. · 2.92 Impact Factor