The transdermal contraceptive patch: a new approach to hormonal contraception.
ABSTRACT The transdermal contraceptive patch delivers ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin (17-deacetylnorgestimate) at a rate over seven days that results in efficacy paralleling that achieved with oral contraceptives. Due to the pharmacokinetics of the system, adequate steroid levels are maintained for two days beyond the recommended duration of use of an individual patch, with resulting maintenance of efficacy. With perfect use, the failure rate is 0.70 pregnancies per 100 woman-years and for typical use, the rate is 0.88 pregnancies per 100 woman-years. Body weight above 90 kilograms (198 pounds) is associated with lower efficacy. Cycle control is similar to that achieved by oral contraceptives. With the exception of a transient increase in breast tenderness, the side effect profile is similar to that noted by oral contraceptive users. A major advantage of this method compared to oral contraceptives is a nearly 90% perfect adherence to the dosing schedule across all age groups. Partial or total detachment of the patch occurs at an overall rate of 3.8%. This rate is not affected by warm humid climates, vigorous exercise, or exposure to saunas or water baths.
- SourceAvailable from: Karen S Ingersoll[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article reviews recent literature in chronic illness or long-term health management including asthma, contraception, diabetes, HIV disease, and hypertension/cardiovascular disease, mental disorders, pain, and other diseases to determine the relationship between regimen factors and adherence to medications. The authors conducted an electronic literature search to detect articles published between 1998 and 2007. Articles were included if they pertained to a chronic illness or to contraception, included a clear definition of how adherence was measured, and included regimen factors as primary or secondary explanatory variables. Methodology of the studies varied greatly, as did methods of measuring adherence and regimen factors. Surprisingly few of these articles concerned (1) chronic treatment, (2) regimen factors such as dosing, pill burden, and regimen complexity, and (3) adherence measured in a clear manner. Most studies failed to use state-of-the-art methods of measuring adherence. Despite these flaws, a suggestive pattern of the importance of regimen factors, specifically dose frequency and regimen complexity, emerged from this review.Journal of Behavioral Medicine 07/2008; 31(3):213-24. DOI:10.1007/s10865-007-9147-y · 3.10 Impact Factor
Article: Contraception for college students.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An important issue for human beings is the acquisition of normal sexual health, including the understanding and application of reproductive health when needed. Comprehensive sexuality education is not a topic provided to many children, adolescents, or college students in the United States, however. Students who were sexually active in high school may continue to be at risk for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases in their college life; those who chose abstinence in high school may abandon this concept in college, choosing coital behavior at all levels of university life-freshman through graduate levels. Most American college students are sexually active and many have multiple partners. This article reviews current contraceptive methods available to college students. College health providers and pediatricians are urged to be vigilant about the reproductive health needs of the college students they serve.Pediatric Clinics of North America 03/2005; 52(1):135-61, ix. DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2004.11.005 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The range of contraceptive options and consumer awareness of new contraceptive methods have both increased significantly over the past 10 years. New methods available in Australia include lower-dose oral contraceptive pills, new oral progestogens, progestogen implants, a progestogen-bearing intrauterine device and polyurethane female condoms. Contraceptive options which may soon be introduced in Australia include novel methods of administering combined (oestrogen-progestogen) contraception, such as dermal patches and vaginal rings.The Medical journal of Australia 07/2003; 178(12):616-20. · 3.79 Impact Factor