Topical retinoic acid alters the expression of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-I and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-II in non-lesional but not lesional psoriatic skin.
ABSTRACT Therapeutic retinoids have profound effects on psoriatic skin pathology but their interactions with various retinoid-binding proteins in lesional vs non-lesional skin have not been investigated. Using quantitative real-time PCR the mRNA expression of cellular retinol-binding protein I (CRBPI) and retinoic acid-binding protein I/II (CRABPI/CRABPII) was studied in psoriatic and healthy control (=normal) skin after 4 days of occlusive RA/vehicle treatment (n=6). Untreated psoriatic lesions showed a markedly elevated CRABPII/CRABPI ratio, while the CRBPI level was reduced in lesional and non-lesional skin as compared to normal skin. In RA-treated normal and non-lesional skin, the mRNA expression of CRBPI was unaltered while that of CRABPI and CRABPII was reduced by approximately 80% and increased approximately 5-fold, respectively, as compared to vehicle-treated skin. In contrast, lesional skin exposed to RA showed an almost 90% increase in CRBPI transcripts but unaltered expression of CRABPI and CRABPII, yet, the mRNA expression of several inflammatory mediators, e.g. inducible nitric oxide synthase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-1beta, was clearly reduced. Immunohistochemistry localized CRABPII to suprabasal keratinocytes in normal skin and revealed markedly elevated levels in lesional skin. RA treatment induced CRABPII protein expression in normal and non-lesional skin, to similar levels as in untreated lesions. The results indicate that the effects of RA differ in normal/non-lesional psoriatic skin and lesional skin. Whether the high expression of CRABPII in psoriatic skin lesions is due to increased amounts of endogenous retinoids in lesional skin or reflects an abnormal regulation of the CRABPII gene in psoriasis remains to be studied.
Article: Expression of retinoid-regulated genes in lamellar ichthyosis vs. healthy control epidermis: changes after oral treatment with liarozole.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lamellar ichthyosis is a keratinization disorder caused by TGM1, Ichthyin and several other gene mutations. A new treatment option is liarozole, which blocks the cytochrome P450 (CYP26)-mediated catabolism of endogenous all-trans retinoic acid. This study focuses on the expression of retinoid-related genes in ichthyotic epidermis before and after treatment with oral liarozole. We first compared the mRNA expression of cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABPII), keratin (KRT) 2 and 4, CYP26A1 and B1, and two markers of inflammation (interleukin-1alpha and tumours necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) in shave biopsies from 11 genetically defined, untreated patients and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, finding no overt differences between the groups, besides elevated CRABPII expression. We then studied the biomarkers before and after 4 weeks of treatment with liarozole (75 or 150 mg/day), which produced a better therapeutic response in patients with Ichthyin (n=3) than in those with TGM1 (n=6) mutations. A significant decrease in the mRNA expression of KRT2 and TNF-alpha, and trends toward increased expression of KRT4 and CYP26A1 were observed in liarozole-treated patients, consistent with an increased retinoid stimulation of epidermis. However, there were no dose-related responses and the results of the immunostaining did not always parallel the mRNA findings. The results suggest that liarozole exerts a therapeutic effect in lamellar ichthyosis by mildly affecting the expression of retinoid- regulated genes in epidermis.Acta Dermato Venereologica 02/2009; 89(1):12-20. · 3.18 Impact Factor
Article: Immunofluorescence localization of nuclear retinoid receptors in psoriasis versus normal human skin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Psoriasis responds favourably to treatment with retinoids but the cellular pathways mediating these effects are poorly understood. Retinoids regulate keratinocyte proliferation and maturation via binding to nuclear retinoic acid receptors (mainly RARalpha and RARgamma) which form heterodimers with the 9-cis-RA receptor, RXRalpha. We have previously shown that mRNA expression of RARalpha and RXRalpha is down-regulated in psoriatic lesions as compared with non-lesional human skin. In the present study, we investigated the protein expression of RARalpha, RARgamma and RXRalpha in normal and psoriatic skin using indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Epidermal keratinocytes of normal and non-lesional psoriatic skin displayed similar nuclear localization of all three receptors; RARalpha was detected with decreasing intensity from basal to suprabasal layers, RARgamma showed the opposite trend, whereas RXRalpha was evenly expressed throughout the epidermis. In lesional psoriatic skin, however, all three receptor proteins showed a much higher staining intensity in the lower half of the epidermis; in particular, RARalpha immunoreactivity was low or even absent in the upper layers of epidermis. The results support the idea that psoriasis is associated with abnormal retinoid signalling in lesional epidermis.Acta Dermato Venereologica 02/2004; 84(5):363-9. · 3.18 Impact Factor