Remodeling of arterial conduits in coronary grafting.
ABSTRACT In the initial decade of coronary surgery, serial angiography of internal thoracic artery grafts revealed increased caliber in some, decreased caliber in others, and "string sign" in a few, which was occasionally documented to be reversible. Although we speculated on possible causes of these changes, it was not until discovery of the endothelial role in modulating arterial diameter to maintain shear stress in a narrow range that we began to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for remodeling of the arterial wall. This review provides a glimpse of the physiology and biology of arterial remodeling and summarizes observations on the various arterial conduits when subjected to flow alterations.
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ABSTRACT: Knowledge of blood vessel mechanical properties is fundamental to the understanding of vascular function in health and disease. Analytic results can help physicians in the clinic, both in designing and in choosing appropriate therapies. Understanding the mechanical response of blood vessels to physiologic loads is necessary before ideal therapeutic solutions can be realized. For this reason, blood vessel constitutive models are needed. This article provides a critical review of recent blood vessel constitutive models, starting with a brief overview of the structure and function of arteries and veins, followed by a discussion of experimental techniques used in the characterization of material properties. Current models are classified by type, including pseudoelastic, randomly elastic, poroelastic, and viscoelastic. Comparisons are presented between the various models and existing experimental data. Applications of blood vessel constitutive models are also briefly presented, followed by the identification of future directions in research.Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 02/2003; 5:413-39. · 12.21 Impact Factor