Biophysical consequences of linker chemistry and polymer size on stealth erythrocytes: size does matter.
ABSTRACT Immunocamouflaged red blood cells (RBC) are produced by cell surface derivatization with methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG). These immunologically attenuated cells may reduce the risk of allosensitization in chronically transfused patients. To characterize the effects of differing linker chemistries and polymer lengths, RBC were modified with cyanuric chloride activated mPEG (C-mPEG 5 kDa), benzotriazole carbonate methoxyPEG (BTC-mPEG; 5 or 20 kDa) or N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester of mPEG propionic acid (SPA-mPEG; 2, 5 or 20 kDa). Biophysical methods including particle electrophoresis and aqueous two-phase polymer partitioning were employed to compare the PEG derivatives. While C-mPEG was faster reacting, both BTC-mPEG and SPA-mPEG gave comparable findings after 1 h. Both PEG surface density and molecular mass had a large effect on RBC surface properties. Proportional changes in electrophoretic mobility and preferential phase partitioning were achieved by increasing either the quantity of surface PEG or the PEG molecular mass. In addition, two-phase partitioning may provide a means for efficiently removing unmodified or lightly modified (hence potentially immunogenic) RBC in the clinical setting. Furthermore, mPEG modification significantly inhibits cell-cell interaction as evidenced by loss of Rouleaux formation and, consequently, sedimentation rate. Importantly, BTC-mPEG 20 kDa RBC showed normal in vivo survival in mice at immunoprotective concentrations (up to 2 mM).
Article: Application of poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) block copolymers and their derivatives as nanomaterials in drug delivery.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) block copolymers are biocompatible and amphiphilic polymers that can be widely utilized in the preparation of liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, polymer hybrid nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, and microemulsions. Particularly, the terminal groups of PEG can be activated and linked to various targeting ligands, which can prolong the circulation time, improve the drug bioavailability, reduce undesirable side effects, and especially target specific cells, tissues, and even the intracellular localization in organelles. This review herein aims to describe recent developments in drug carriers exploiting PEG-DSPE block copolymers and their derivatives, and the incorporation of different ligands to the end groups of PEG-DSPE to target delivery, focusing on their modification approaches, advantages, applications, and the probable associated drawbacks.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:4185-98. · 3.13 Impact Factor
Article: The effect of grafted methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) chain length on the inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and proliferation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of morbidity in humans. To date, no effective treatments exist and current prophylactic therapy access is limited and is only approximately 50% effective. To attenuate the risk of RSV infection, we hypothesized that bioengineering of either the virus particle or host cell via the covalent grafting of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [mPEG] would prevent infection. To this end, the anti-viral effects of grafting concentration, linker chemistry and polymer length on RSV infection was assessed. For viral modification, short chain polymers (2 kDa) were significantly more effective than long chain (20 kDa) polymers. In contrast, modification of host cells with small polymers provided no (approximately 0%) protection while long chain polymers effectively prevented infection. For example, at 48 hours post-infection at a multiplicity of infection of 0.5 and grafting concentrations of 5, 7.5, and 15 mm, 20 kDa mPEG decreased infection by 45, 83, and 91%, respectively. Importantly, both viral and host cell PEGylation strategies were able to provide near complete protection against RSV infection of both non-polarized and polarized cells. In conclusion, mPEG-modification of either RSV or the host cell is a highly effective prophylactic strategy for preventing viral infection.Biomaterials 02/2010; 31(14):4223-30. · 7.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular delivery of several classes of therapeutic agents may benefit from carriage by red blood cells (RBC), for example, drugs that require delivery into phagocytic cells and those that must act within the vascular lumen. The fact that several protocols of infusion of RBC-encapsulated drugs are now being explored in patients illustrates a high biomedical importance for the field. AREAS COVERED BY THIS REVIEW: Two strategies for RBC drug delivery are discussed: encapsulation into isolated RBC ex vivo followed by infusion in compatible recipients and coupling therapeutics to the surface of RBC. Studies of pharmacokinetics and effects in animal models and in human studies of diverse therapeutic enzymes, antibiotics and other drugs encapsulated in RBC are described and critically analyzed. Coupling to RBC surface of compounds regulating immune response and complement, affinity ligands, polyethylene glycol alleviating immune response to donor RBC and fibrinolytic plasminogen activators are described. Also described is a new, translation-prone approach for RBC drug delivery by injection of therapeutics conjugated with fragments of antibodies providing safe anchoring of cargoes to circulating RBC, without need for ex vivo modification and infusion of RBC. Readers will gain historical perspective, current status, challenges and perspectives of medical applications of RBC for drug delivery. RBC represent naturally designed carriers for intravascular drug delivery, characterized by unique longevity in the bloodstream, biocompatibility and safe physiological mechanisms for metabolism. New approaches for encapsulating drugs into RBC and coupling to RBC surface provide promising avenues for safe and widely useful improvement of drug delivery in the vascular system.Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2010; 7(4):403-27. · 4.90 Impact Factor