[Imported malaria in children in 1999. Study of the Armand-Trousseau Hospital in Paris].
ABSTRACT Eighty children were treated at the hospital Armand-Trousseau (Paris, France) for a malaria attack from 1999-01-01 to 2000-02-01.
The parasites were: Plasmodium falciparum: 87.5%, Plasmodium malariae: 12.6%, Plasmodium ovale: 10%, Plasmodium vivax: 6.3%. Mean age was 8.1 years (range: three months to 15 y). The origin of patients was: West Africa for 60 children, Central Africa for ten children and Comores for seven. Sixty-six patients suffered from common malaria attack and seven children were admitted with a presentation of severe malaria. The severe attacks were cerebral malaria for six cases, associated with severe anemia in five cases; the 7th child had a respiratory distress (ARDS) and died. The other six cases were cured without sequelae. Relapses were observed for eight patients: one after a severe cerebral malaria, six after a common P. falciparum attack, one after a P. ovale attack. Parasitemia was higher than in preceding years (mean 2.9%) and more than 5% in 11 cases, but without clear link with severity. Treatment by halofantrine with a single cure was followed by five relapses. None of those children received an effective prophylaxis during and after travel (55/80 without any prophylaxis).
These data emphasize the importance of a good appraisal of criteria of severe malaria and lead to advice hospitalization of children with malaria in temperate zone.
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ABSTRACT: Children account for an appreciable proportion of total imported malaria cases, yet few studies have quantified these cases, identified trends, or suggested evidence-based prevention strategies for this group of travelers. We therefore sought to identify numbers of cases and deaths, Plasmodium species, place of malaria acquisition, preventive measures used, and national origin of malaria in children. We analyzed retrospective data from Australia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States and data provided by the United Nations World Tourism Organization. During 1992-2002, >17,000 cases of imported malaria in children were reported in 11 countries where malaria is not endemic; most (>70%) had been acquired in Africa. Returning to country of origin to visit friends and relatives was a risk factor. Malaria prevention for children should be a responsibility of healthcare providers and should be subsidized for low-income travelers to high-risk areas.Emerging Infectious Diseases 02/2009; 15(2):185-91. · 6.79 Impact Factor