[Incontinentia pigmenti. A rare disease with many symptoms].

Ogonkliniken, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala.
Lakartidningen 04/2002; 99(12):1345-50.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Incontinentia pigmenti, also known as Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome, is a rare multi-systemic disorder. The disease is characterised by abnormalities in ectodermal tissues including the skin, eyes, central nervous system and dentition. It is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait and is usually fatal for male fetuses. Thirty-eight Swedish patients from 16 families were identified. Thirty patients were examined clinically and their DNA were analysed for deletions in the NEMO-gene. The disease showed a large clinical variability even within families and the common deletion in the NEMO-gene was found present in 70% of the families.

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked genodermatosis caused by a mutation of the IKBKG gene. The objective of this study was to present a systematic review of the dental and oral types of anomalies, to determine the total number and sex distribution of the anomalies, and to analyze possible therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the literature data from 1,286 IP cases from the period 1993-2010. RESULTS: Dental and/or oral anomalies were diagnosed for 54.38% of the investigated IP patients. Most of the anomaly types were dental, and the most frequent of these were dental shape anomalies, hypodontia, and delayed dentition. The most frequent oral anomaly types were cleft palate and high arched palate. IKBKG exon 4-10 deletion was present in 86.36% of genetically confirmed IP patients. CONCLUSIONS: According to the frequency, dental and/or oral anomalies represent the most frequent and important IP minor criteria. The most frequent mutation was IKBKG exon 4-10 deletion. The majority of dental anomalies and some of the oral anomalies could be corrected. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Because of the presence of cleft palate and high arched palate in IP patients, these two anomalies may be considered as diagnostic IP minor criteria as well.
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    ABSTRACT: In 1993 diagnostic criteria for incontinentia pigmenti (IP), a genodermatosis in which skin changes are usually combined with anomalies of other organs, were established. Approximately a decade ago, IKBKG gene mutation was discovered as a cause for IP. This finding has not been included in IP diagnosis so far. In addition, literature data pointed out a few other clinical findings as possible IP diagnostic criteria. Analyses of literature facts concerning IP diagnosis. Different organ anomalies, their frequency and severity, were analyzed in the context of applicability as IP diagnostic criteria. Taking into account analyzed data from the literature, the proposal of updated IP diagnostic criteria was presented. We propose as major criteria one of the stages of IP skin lesions. As updated IP minor criteria in our proposal we included: dental, ocular; CNS, hair, nail, palate, breast and nipple anomalies; multiple male miscarriages, and IP pathohistological findings. In the diagnosis of IP the presence of IKBKG mutation typical for IP, and existence of family-relatives with diagnosed IP are taken into account.
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    ABSTRACT: Oral signs and symptoms are present in most ectodermal dysplasias (EDs). The aim of this article is to summarize some of the literature on current knowledge of oral manifestations and orofacial function in EDs. The review will focus on the most common forms where dental manifestations can be crucial for a differential diagnosis of ED among individuals with hypodontia and oligodontia, and preferably where the investigations included persons who had a genetically verified diagnosis. Disturbances in tooth development are common and can appear as tooth agenesis, variations in size and shape of teeth, defects in the mineralized tissues, and problems in tooth eruption. Abnormalities in number, size, and shape of teeth, and reduced salivary secretion, present in isolated oligodontia as well as in hypohidrotic ED and incontinentia pigmenti. In some more rare EDs these symptoms appear in combination with clefts of lip and/or palate in some affected individuals. Leukokeratosis in the oral mucosa presents in 70% of genetically confirmed cases of pachyonychia congenita. Also, orofacial function is often affected in ED, due to malformations, an incomplete dentition, and low salivary secretion which can compromise chewing, swallowing, and speech. In conclusion, there is a clinical overlap in oral signs and symptoms between isolated oligodontia and the most common EDs. Studies with genetically confirmed diagnoses and larger cohorts, as well as multicenter collaboration and the establishing of international registries, would create a basis for refined diagnostics, where oral examinations should be an integrated part of clinical assessment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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