Measles in suburban Khartoum: an epidemiological and clinical study.
ABSTRACT Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from 187 clinically diagnosed measles patients in Haj Yousif area, suburban Khartoum. Laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis in 141 (75%) of the cases, but demonstrated that in 46 (25%) patients the clinical symptoms were not caused by an acute measles virus (MV) infection. According to their vaccination card, 59% of the laboratory-confirmed measles cases had been vaccinated for measles. Compared with non-measles rash disease cases, confirmed measles cases more often had severe illness (P < 0.0001), were dehydrated (P=0.01) at presentation and less likely to recover without complications [OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.09, 0.39)]. There was no difference in death rate (P=0.20). Underweight [weight-for-age Z score (WAZ) <or= -2 SD] was an independent predictor of recovery with complications [OR 0.4 (95% CI 0.2, 0.99)]. Severe measles cases (those who developed diarrhoea, pneumonia, otitis media, encephalitis or haemorrhagic rash) had similar vaccination rates and time intervals since vaccination as uncomplicated measles cases. Although severe measles had lower WAZ-scores (P=0.004), none of the nutritional parameters studied were predictive of outcome. Mortality was higher in the severe measles group [OR 8.8 (95% CI 1.7, 85.2)]. In 11 of 141 confirmed measles cases serological evidence of a recent infection with another virus was found, most commonly varicella zoster virus and dengue virus; spotted fever and rubella were among the most frequent diagnoses in 17 of 47 cases of the non-measles cases.
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ABSTRACT: Between 2005 and 2006, clinical specimens were collected from 31 infants with suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) who presented at six hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan. Eleven (35.5%) were laboratory confirmed as CRS cases by testing for anti-rubella IgM, IgG and viral genome. For the first time in Sudan, the rubella virus genome was directly detected in clinical specimens of six CRS cases and two viruses were isolated in cell culture. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that three genotypes of rubella virus (RV; 1E, 2B and 1G) were co-circulating in Sudan. The study introduced the methodology for CRS confirmation and surveillance in Sudan and provides preliminary data.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10/2009; 16(6):678-82. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02966.x · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Global deaths from measles have decreased notably in past decades, due to both increases in immunization rates and decreases in measles case fatality ratios (CFRs). While some aspects of the reduction in measles mortality can be monitored through increases in immunization coverage, estimating the level of measles deaths (in absolute terms) is problematic, particularly since incidence-based methods of estimation rely on accurate measures of measles CFRs. These ratios vary widely by geographic and epidemiologic context and even within the same community from year-to-year. To understand better the variations in CFRs, we reviewed community-based studies published between 1980 and 2008 reporting age-specific measles CFRs. The results of the search consistently document that measles CFRs are highest in unvaccinated children under age 5 years; in outbreaks; the lowest CFRs occur in vaccinated children regardless of setting. The broad range of case and death definitions, study populations and geography highlight the complexities in extrapolating results for global public health planning. Values for measles CFRs remain imprecise, resulting in continued uncertainty about the actual toll measles exacts.International Journal of Epidemiology 03/2009; 38(1):192-205. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyn224 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Measles virus (MV) is highly infectious, and has long been thought to enter the host by infecting epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. However, epithelial cells do not express signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (CD150), which is the high-affinity cellular receptor for wild-type MV strains. We have generated a new recombinant MV strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), based on a wild-type genotype B3 virus isolate from Khartoum, Sudan (KS). Cynomolgus macaques were infected with a high dose of rMV(KS)EGFP by aerosol inhalation to ensure that the virus could reach the full range of potential target cells throughout the entire respiratory tract. Animals were euthanized 2, 3, 4 or 5 days post-infection (d.p.i., n = 3 per time point) and infected (EGFP(+)) cells were identified at all four time points, albeit at low levels 2 and 3 d.p.i. At these earliest time points, MV-infected cells were exclusively detected in the lungs by fluorescence microscopy, histopathology and/or virus isolation from broncho-alveolar lavage cells. On 2 d.p.i., EGFP(+) cells were phenotypically typed as large mononuclear cells present in the alveolar lumen or lining the alveolar epithelium. One to two days later, larger clusters of MV-infected cells were detected in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and in the tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes. From 4 d.p.i. onward, MV-infected cells were detected in peripheral blood and various lymphoid tissues. In spite of the possibility for the aerosolized virus to infect cells and lymphoid tissues of the upper respiratory tract, MV-infected cells were not detected in either the tonsils or the adenoids until after onset of viremia. These data strongly suggest that in our model MV entered the host at the alveolar level by infecting macrophages or dendritic cells, which traffic the virus to BALT or regional lymph nodes, resulting in local amplification and subsequent systemic dissemination by viremia.PLoS Pathogens 01/2011; 7(1):e1001263. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001263 · 8.06 Impact Factor