Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) typically occur in middle-aged to elderly patients but less commonly in younger ones. In our experience, most BCCs seen in patients younger than 40 years are found in women. We evaluated 30 women with biopsy-proven BCC and 30 control patients matched for sex, age, and skin type to determine potential risk factors for this population. Tanning bed visits, pack-years of cigarette smoking, recreational sun exposure, number of blistering sunburns, and use of sunscreens were determined for both groups. Among patients with a BCC, the histologic type of tumor, site of involvement, method of treatment, follow-up period, incidence of recurrence, and presence of actinic keratoses were also evaluated. Patients with a BCC had a statistically greater number of pack years of smoking (P =.045), and a greater percentage of these women had experienced blistering sunburns (P =.028). Although women with a BCC had, on average, almost twice as many tanning salon visits (152.2 vs 83.1), this was not statistically significant. Sunscreen use and amount of recreational ultraviolet light exposure were essentially equal between the two groups. Young women with a BCC are more likely to have a past or current history of cigarette smoking and blistering sunburns. Repeated exposure to tanning beds may also be a contributory factor.
"Findings from previous studies that aimed to quantify the association between the amount of sunlight exposure and NMSC suggested that intermittent sunlight exposure is associated with BCC
[24,32] while chronic sunlight exposure is associated with SCC
[17,20,33-36]. Two of three previous case–control studies
[20,34,37] observed associations between SCC and history of blistering sunburn while no associations have been previously reported with BCC
[24,34,37,38]. Blistering sunburn is believed to result from high doses of intense UVR exposure in short increments of time and is therefore considered a measure of intermittency. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprised of basal (BCC) and squamous (SCC) cell carcinomas, is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for NMSC. However, the precise relationship between UVR and the risk of NMSC is complex, and the relationship may differ by skin cancer type.
A case–control study was conducted among Florida residents to investigate measures of patterns (intermittent vs. continuous) and timing (childhood vs. adulthood) of sunlight exposure in BCC and SCC. Participants included 218 BCC and 169 SCC cases recruited from a university dermatology clinic and 316 controls with no history of skin or other cancers.
A history of blistering sunburn (a measure of intermittent sunlight exposure) was associated with both BCC (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.27-3.03) and SCC (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.22-3.33). Additionally, having a job in the sun for ≥3 months for 10 years or longer (a measure of continuous sunlight exposure) was also associated with both BCC and SCC in our study population. With the exception of younger age at first blistering sunburn, measures of younger age at sunlight exposure tended to be associated with SCC, but not BCC risk.
Results from the current study suggest that sunlight exposure is associated with both BCC and SCC risk regardless of the pattern in which the exposure was received (i.e. intermittent vs. continuous). The data also suggest that sunlight exposure at a younger age may be more important for SCC but not BCC, however additional studies are needed to further characterize sunlight exposure-response relationships in different types of NMSC.
BMC Cancer 09/2012; 12(1):417. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-417 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"BCC has been relatively understudied in epidemiologic research because it is not reported to most cancer registries. Thus far, two studies provided an intriguing glimpse at risk factors for early-onset BCC, but these had small sample sizes; 30 cases (Boyd et al., 2002) and 25 cases (Bakos et al., 2011). Due to the limited understanding of early-onset BCC etiology, we conducted a case-control study in Connecticut among individuals under age 40 investigating lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence is increasing, particularly among adults under the age of 40 years. Pigment-related characteristics are associated with BCC in older populations, but epidemiologic studies among younger individuals and analyses of phenotype-genotype interactions are limited. We examined self-reported phenotypes and melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) variants in relation to early-onset BCC. BCC cases (n=377) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=390) under the age of 40 years were identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database. Factors most strongly associated with early-onset BCC were skin reaction to first summer sun for 1 hour (severe sunburn vs. tan odds ratio (OR)=12.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.08-36.94) and skin color (very fair vs. olive OR=11.06, 95% CI=5.90-20.74). Individuals with two or more MC1R non-synonymous variants were 3.59 times (95% CI=2.37-5.43) more likely to have BCC than those without non-synonymous variants. All host characteristics and MC1R were more strongly associated with multiple BCC case status (37% of cases) than a single BCC case status. MC1R, number of moles, skin reaction to first summer sun for 1 hour, and hair and skin color were independently associated with BCC. BCC risk conferred by MC1R tended to be stronger among those with darker pigment phenotypes, traditionally considered to be at low risk of skin cancer.
"Generally, elderly subjects are affected, although patients less than 40 years old, especially women, are not uncommon. The women affected are often smokers who have histories of either repeated sun burn or having repeated tanning treatments (Boyd et al., 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes how many of the defects caused by oncological surgery can be closed with an easily estended flap.
The Zitelli bilobed flap was used to treat 285 consecutive patients with basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) or squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); 167 men (58.60%) and 118 women (41.40%) between 45 and 98 years of age. Histologically, 247 BCCs (86.6%) and 38 SCCs (13.4%) were documented. Regarding the site, 148 (51.9%) involved the nose, 51 (17.9%) the cheeks, 36 (12.6%) the preauricular region, 27 (9.5%) the perilabial region and chin and 23 (8.1%) the periorbital region. To measure long-term satisfaction patients responded to a telephone survey consisting of a single global question.
The size of the defect following tumour removal was between 1 and 4cm. Carcinomas up to 1cm were treated using a one step procedure with a cryostat test of the surgical margins; all others cases were treated using two step procedure after excision and histological in sano resection. Completely acceptable aesthetic and functional deficits were obtained in 275 (96.4%) patients over a 6-72-month follow-up. Ten (3.6%) patients suffered postoperative complications. Two cases of local infection; one case of completely flap necrosis and seven cases of partial revision due to flap necrosis occurred. The level of satisfaction with the surgical long-term result reported by the patients was high.
In our experience the bilobed Zitelli flap for covering defects in the area of the face showed very few complications and good aesthetic results.
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 11/2009; 38(6):460-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jcms.2009.10.022 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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