Erinacine Q, a new erinacine from Hericium erinaceum, and its biosynthetic route to erinacine C in the basidiomycete.
ABSTRACT Erinacines as cyathane-xylosides are known to have potent stimulating activity for nerve-growth-factor synthesis. Our search for new cyathane metabolites from a liquid culture of Hericium erinaceum YB4-6237 resulted in the isolation of a new erinacine named erinacine Q (1). NMR spectrometry and a chemical derivation from erinacine P (2) determined the compound to be a derivative in which the formyl group of erinacine P had been reduced to the hydroxymethyl group. To clarify the biosynthetic relationship between erinacine Q and the others, [1'-13C]erinacine Q ([1'-13C]-1) was chemically derived from [1'-13C]erinacine P ([1'-13C]-2) which had been prepared by feeding [1-13C]-D-glucose to the basidiomycete. The biotransformation of labeled erinacine Q into [1'-13C]erinacine C ([1'-13C]-5) via [1'-13C]erinacine P in this basidiomycete was demonstrated by NMR spectrometry.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Mushrooms have long been used not only as food but also for the treatment of various ailments. Although at its infancy, accumulated evidence suggested that culinary-medicinal mushrooms may play an important role in the prevention of many age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to a search for more mushroom species that may improve memory and cognition functions. Such mushrooms include Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Sarcodon spp., Antrodia camphorata, Pleurotus giganteus, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Grifola frondosa, and many more. Here, we review over 20 different brain-improving culinary-medicinal mushrooms and at least 80 different bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from them. The mushrooms (either extracts from basidiocarps/mycelia or isolated compounds) reduced beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity and had anti-acetylcholinesterase, neurite outgrowth stimulation, nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-(neuro)inflammatory effects. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the bioactive effects of mushrooms are also discussed. Mushrooms can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the management and/or treatment of neurodegeneration diseases. However, this review focuses on in vitro evidence and clinical trials with humans are needed.Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 03/2014; · 5.10 Impact Factor