Aggregation of granulocyte colony stimulating factor under physiological conditions: characterization and thermodynamic inhibition.
ABSTRACT We have investigated the aggregation of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhGCSF), a protein that rapidly aggregates and precipitates at pH 6.9 and 37 degrees C. We observed that native monomeric rhGCSF reversibly forms a dimer under physiological conditions and that this dimeric species does not participate in the irreversible aggregation process. Sucrose, a thermodynamic stabilizer, inhibits the aggregation of rhGCSF. We postulate that sucrose acts by reducing the concentration of structurally expanded species, consistent with the hypothesis that preferential exclusion favors most compact species in the native state ensemble. Thermodynamic stability data from unfolding curves and hydrogen-deuterium exchange experimental results support the above hypothesis. Thus, the strategy of stabilizing the native state of the protein under physiological conditions using thermodynamic stabilizers, especially ligands binding with high affinity to the native state, is expected to protect against protein aggregation occurring under such nonperturbing solution conditions.
Article: Native-state solubility and transfer free energy as predictive tools for selecting excipients to include in protein formulation development studies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the present report, two formulation strategies, based on different aggregation models, were compared for their ability to quickly predict which excipients (cosolutes) would minimize the aggregation rate of an immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody (mAb-1) stored for long term at refrigerated and room temperatures. The first formulation strategy assumed that a conformational change to an aggregation-prone intermediate state was necessary to initiate the association process and the second formulation strategy assumed that protein self-association was instead controlled by the solubility of the native state. The results of these studies indicate that the stabilizing effect of excipients formulated at isotonic concentrations is derived from their ability to solubilize the native state, not by the increase of protein conformational stability induced by their presence. The degree the excipients solvate the native state was determined from the apparent transfer free energy of the native state from water into each of the excipients. These values for mAb-1 and two additional therapeutic antibodies correlated well to their long-term 4°C and room temperature aggregation data and were calculated using only the literature values for the apparent transfer free energies of the amino acids into the various excipients and the three-dimensional models of the antibodies.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 05/2012; 101(8):2720-32. · 3.06 Impact Factor