Conformational remodeling of proteasomal substrates by PA700, the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome
ABSTRACT PA700, the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome, plays a central role in the recognition and efficient degradation of misfolded proteins. PA700 promotes degradation by recruiting proteasomal substrates utilizing polyubiquitin chains and chaperone-like binding activities and by opening the access to the core of the 20 S proteasome to promote degradation. Here we provide evidence that PA700 in addition to binding misfolded protein substrates also acts to remodel their conformation prior to proteolysis. Scrambled RNase A (scRNase A), a misfolded protein, only slowly refolds spontaneously into an active form because of the rate-limiting unfolding of misfolded disulfide isomers. Notably, PA700 accelerates the rate of reactivation of scRNase A, consistent with its ability to increase the exposure of these disulfide bonds to the solvent. In this regard, PA700 also exposes otherwise buried sites to digestion by exogenous chymotrypsin in a polyubiquitinated enzymatically active substrate, pentaubiquitinated dihydrofolate reductase, Ub(5)DHFR. The dihydrofolate reductase ligand methotrexate counters the ability of PA700 to promote digestion by chymotrypsin. Together, these results indicate that in addition to increasing substrate affinity and opening the access channel to the catalytic sites, PA700 activates proteasomal degradation by remodeling the conformation of protein substrates.
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ABSTRACT: Gene expression is an intricate process tightly linked from gene activation to the nuclear export of mRNA. Recent studies have indicated that the proteasome is essential for gene expression regulation. The proteasome regulatory particle binds to the SAGA complex and affects transcription in an ATP-dependent manner. Here we report that a specific interaction between the proteasomal ATPase, Rpt2p and Sgf73p of the SAGA complex leads to the dissociation of the H2Bub1-deubiquitylating module (herein designated the Sgf73-DUBm) from SAGA both in vitro and in vivo. We show that the localization of the Sgf73-DUBm on chromatin is perturbed in rpt2-1, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is specifically defective in the Rpt2p-Sgf73p interaction. The rpt2-1 mutant also exhibits impaired localization of the TREX-2 and MEX67-MTR2 complexes and is defective in mRNA export. Our findings collectively demonstrate that the proteasome-mediated remodelling of the SAGA complex is a prerequisite for proper mRNA export.Nature Communications 10/2013; 4:2641. DOI:10.1038/ncomms3641 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The main machinery responsible for cellular protein maintenance is the ubiquitin-proteasomal system, with its core particle the 20S proteasome. The main task of the system is a fast and efficient degradation of proteins not needed anymore in cellular metabolism. For this aim a complex system of regulators evolved, modifying the function of the 20S core proteasome. Here we summarize shortly the structure of the 20S proteasome as well as its associated regulator proteins.01/2013; 1(1):178-182. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2013.01.004
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ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin 1, Trx1 is a key regulator of cellular redox balance and participates in cellular signaling events. Recent evidence in yeast indicates that members of the Trx family interact with the 20 S proteasome, indicating redox regulation of proteasome activity. However, there is little information about the interrelationship of Trx proteins with the proteasome system in mammalian cells, especially in the nucleus. Here, we have investigated this relationship under different cellular conditions in mammalian cells. We show that Trx1 levels and its subcellular localization (cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus) depend on the proteasome activity during the cell cycle in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and under stress conditions, when proteasomes were inhibited. In addition, we also studied in these cells how the main cellular antioxidant systems are stimulated when proteasome activity is inhibited. Finally, we describe a reduction in Trx1 levels in Lafora disease fibroblasts and demonstrate that the nuclear colocalization of Trx1 with 20 S proteasomes in laforin deficient cells was altered when compared with control cells. Our results indicate a close relationship between Trx1 and the 20S nuclear proteasomes and give a new perspective to study diseases or physiopathological conditions in which defects in the proteasome system are associated to oxidative stress.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2013; 65. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.07.001 · 5.71 Impact Factor