Article

Effect of surgery on the outcome of midgut carcinoid disease with lymph node and liver metastases.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
World Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.35). 08/2002; 26(8):991-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00268-002-6630-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have evaluated survival and tumor-related symptoms in the presence of mesenteric lymph node and liver metastases in relation to surgical procedures in 314 patients (148 women, mean age at diagnosis 61 years; 249 with liver metastases) treated for midgut carcinoid tumors. Of the operated patients, 46% presented with severe abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction and were operated on before the diagnosis. Medical treatment (somatostatin analogs, interferon-a) was initiated in 67% and 86%, respectively. Surgical attempts included small intestine or ileocecal/right-sided colon resection with excision of mesenteric lymph node metastases. Most of the patients (n = 286) had mesenteric lymph node metastases; 33% of them had unresectable mesenteric lymph node metastases and underwent surgery without mesenteric dissection. Patients who underwent resection for the primary tumor had a longer survival than those with no resection (median survival 7.4 vs. 4.0 years; p <0.01). Patients who underwent successful excision of mesenteric metastases had a significantly longer survival than those with remaining lymph node metastases. Patients operated on for a primary tumor but with remaining lymph nodes but no liver metastases and who subsequently received interferon and somatostatin analog treatment had a median survival of 7.4 years. Resection of the primary tumor and the mesenteric lymph node metastases led to a significant reduction in tumor-related symptoms. Surgery to remove the primary intestinal tumor including mesenteric lymph node metastases is supported by the present results, even in the presence of liver metastases. Liver metastases and significant preoperative weight loss are identified as major negative prognostic factors for survival.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Per Hellman, Sep 23, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
91 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Survival of metastatic gastroenteropancreatic well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma (GEP WDEC) is not well characterized. We evaluated the long-term outcome and prognostic factors for survival in 118 patients with distant metastases from GEP WDEC. Inclusion criteria were 1) pathological review by a single pathologist according to the present WHO criteria, 2) absence of previous therapy apart from surgery, 3) complete morphological evaluation within 3 months including somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and 4) follow-up at Gustave-Roussy Institute until death or study's end. Clinical, biological marker, and pathological parameters were analyzed in univariate and multivariate statistical models. Survival after the first complete imaging work-up of the metastatic disease was determined using Kaplan-Meier method. Overall, survival for 5 years after the diagnosis of metastatic disease was 54%. In multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio (HR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.08, P = 0.01), the number of liver metastases (HR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4-8.3, P = 0.01), tumor slope (HR: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1, P = 0.001), and initial surgery (HR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, P = 0.01) were predictive of survival. Five-year survival was 100%, 91% (95% CI, 51-98%), 62% (95% CI, 37-83%), and 9% (95% CI, 6-32%) when patients had 0, 1, 2, 3 or more poor prognostic features respectively. This study enables the stratification of metastatic GEP WDEC patients into distinct risk groups. These risk categories can be used to tailor therapeutic approaches and also to design and interpret clinical trials.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 03/2009; 16(2):585-97. DOI:10.1677/ERC-08-0301 · 4.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Somatostatin receptor (sstr)-mediated radiation therapy is a new therapeutic modality for neuroendocrine (NE) tumours. High expression of sstr in NE tumours leads to tumour-specific uptake of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues and high absorbed doses. In this study, we present the first optimised radiation therapy via sstr using [(177)Lu-DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)]-octreotate given to nude mice xenografted with the human midgut carcinoid GOT1. The tumours in 22 out of 23 animals given therapeutic amounts showed dose-dependent, rapid complete remission. The diagnostic amount (0.5 MBq [(177)Lu-DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)]-octreotate) did not influence tumour growth and was rapidly excreted. In contrast, the therapeutic amount (30 MBq [(177)Lu-DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)]-octreotate) induced rapid tumour regression and entrapment of (177)Lu so that the activity concentration of (177)Lu remained high, 7 and 13 days after injection. The entrapment phenomenon increased the absorbed dose to tumours from 1.6 to 4.0 Gy MBq(-1) and the tumours in animals treated with 30 MBq received 120 Gy. Therapeutic amounts of [(177)Lu-DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)]-octreotate rapidly induced apoptosis and gradual development of fibrosis in grafted tumours. In conclusion, human midgut carcinoid xenografts can be cured by receptor-mediated radiation therapy by optimising the uptake of radioligand and taking advantage of the favourable change in biokinetics induced by entrapment of radionuclide in the tumours.
    British Journal of Cancer 12/2005; 93(10):1144-51. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602845 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Midgut neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients are often diagnosed at an advanced stage with extensive mesenteric lymph node and liver metastasis. Even with skillful surgical dissection, macro and microscopic residual disease at the dissection site remains a possibility. We hypothesize these potential tumor residuals in mesenteric lymph node dissection beds can be eliminated safely by a local application of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We describe a novel technique invented by the author to treat these micro and macro residuals. Retrospectively, charts of 62 consecutive midgut NET patients with boggy mesenteric lymphadenopathy who underwent cytoreductive debulking surgeries from 1/2007 to 12/2009 were reviewed. A total of 32 patients received an intraoperative application of 5-FU saturated gelfoam strips secured into the mesenteric defect following the extensive lymphadenectomy. A total of 30 untreated patients served as a control. The 5-year survival after cytoreductive surgeries was 22/32 (68.8%) for the treated group, vs. 20/30 (66.7%) for the control. Six patients (6/32, 18.8%) among the study group required additional debulking surgeries, vs. 16 patients (16/30, 53.3%) in the control group. Upon reoperation, loco-regional recurrence was noted in 9 of the 16 patients (56.3%) in the control group, vs. only 2/6 (33.3%) of treated patients. Overall, local recurrence rate is 6.25% (2/32) in the treated group vs. 30% (9/30) in the control group. Post-op complication rates are similar in the two arms. Intraoperative application of chemotherapy is a safe and effective adjuvant to reduce local recurrence and the need of reoperation by the tumoricidal or tumorstatic effects of 5-FU on any potential microscopic residual disease after extensive cytoreductive surgeries in advanced stage NET patients with mesenteric lymph node metastasis. It provides patients with sustained, slow releasing, high dose of 5-FU within the surgical bed with a negligible side effect profile. Further studies are required to evaluate its effect on long term survival.
    Journal of gastrointestinal oncology 06/2015; 6(3):254-8. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2015.008