Dopplersonographic findings in neonates with significant persistent ductus arteriosus
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was the description and review of a diagnostic management for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates. Indomethacin, widely used to effect nonoperative closure of patent ductus arteriosus, has been implicated in vasoactive side effects and requires an accurate diagnosis.
Firstly, the hemodynamic significance of the ductus arteriosus was assessed by clinical signs, such as tachycardia, disturbed microcirculation and a high difference of central and peripheral temperature. The patent ductus arteriosus was confirmed by echocardiography. The left ventricular systolic time intervals and the cerebral perfusion were obtained by pulsed doppler recordings. 48 preterm infants below 1500 g were investigated within the first 12 hours of life and during the first week.
In 32 preterm neonates (67 %) a patent ductus arteriosus without hemodynamic significance and in 9 neonates a patent ductus arteriosus with hemodynamic changes was detected. In 9 neonates there were no signs of patent ductus arteriosus. Neonates with typical clinical signs of patent ductus arteriosus exhibited significantly diminished preejection time, prolonged ejection time and a decreased quotient of preejection and ejection time. We found pathologically changed parameters of anterior cerebral artery in neonates with clinical signs of patent ductus arteriosus. To judge the efficiency of the diagnostic management the groups of neonates were compared concerning the evidence of complications. Neonates with ductus arteriosus but without therapy did not reveal more pulmonary problems as well as intracerebral hemorrhages, renal or intestinal disturbances than the group of neonates with treated ductus arteriosus.
Summarizing, we suggest that the described criteria are to be taken into account before treatment of ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates. In this way a wide clinical and echocardiographical investigation will be performed in risk neonates and a useless therapy can be avoided.
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ABSTRACT: Blood flow parameters in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) change with vasoconstriction or vasodilatation of the intestinal vascular bed. In cases of severe growth retardation as a result of haemodynamic disturbances, the blood flow changes persist into postnatal life. To assess early changes of Doppler sonographic blood flow parameters in the SMA for prediction of later intestinal motility disturbances in preterm infants and tolerance of enteral feeding during the first week of life. Doppler sonographic blood flow parameters in the SMA were measured on the first day of life and the following 5 days in 478 neonates with a birth weight below 1,500 g. According to the Doppler results, the neonates were divided into two groups-those with pathological parameters and those with normal blood flow parameters. Correlations between blood flow parameters, the development of intestinal dysmotility and the tolerated amount of enteral feeding were calculated. Pathological blood flow parameters were observed in 148 neonates (group 1) and normal blood flow parameters in 330 neonates (group 2). Intestinal motility disturbance occurred in 125 neonates (83%) of group 1 and 47 neonates (15%) of group 2. Neonates in group 2 tolerated significantly more feed by the fifth day of life than neonates in group 1. Postnatal adaptation did not differ between the two groups, although the majority of neonates with intestinal dysmotility were small for gestational age. The predictive value of blood flow parameters for prediction of intestinal motility revealed high sensitivity and specificity by the first postnatal day, 2 or 3 days before development of clinical signs of intestinal dysmotility. There was a strong negative correlation between pathological pulsatility index on day 1 and the quantity of tolerated enteral feeding on day 5. Pathological blood flow parameters in the SMA can predict problems of intestinal motility and tolerance of enteral feeding. With the early detection of these problems a prompt start of adequate therapy to avoid complications is possible.Pediatric Radiology 01/2005; 34(12):958-62. DOI:10.1007/s00247-004-1285-6