Pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients presenting with normal chest radiograph and negative sputum smear.
ABSTRACT HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis exhibit atypical radiological presentation and negative sputum smear more frequently than their HIV-negative counterparts.
We performed a retrospective study based on a chart review of 146 HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms and culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis. We compared clinical characteristics and the outcome in 71 patients (49%) with positive sputum smear (SS+), 62 patients (42%) with negative sputum smear/abnormal chest X-ray (SS-/CXR+) and 13 patients (9%) with negative sputum smear/normal chest X-ray (SS-/CXR-). Patients were enrolled from January 1987 to December 1998, and were followed up until December 1999.
On hospital admission the three groups of patients examined did not differ significantly in demographic characteristics, degree of immunosuppression or Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug-susceptibility pattern. SS-/CXR- patients were significantly Less LikeLy to present with prolonged fever and dyspnea. Median survival was shorter for SS-/CXR- patients (6.4 months vs 20.2 and 18.8 months in the other two groups). In multivariate analysis, SS-/CXR-patients had a significantly increased risk of death (hazard ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 6.4, p = 0.004) compared to SS+ patients. This increase in risk was no longer statistically significant when initiation of antituberculous therapy within 8 weeks from the collection date of the first specimen yielding M. tuberculosis was included in the multivariate model.
Decreased survival was observed in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and with both negative sputum smear and normaL chest X-ray presentation. This may primarily be a resuLt of delayed tuberculosis diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy. The latter delay may also lead to a faster progression of HIV infection in SS-/CXR patients, in whom diagnostic oversight may be common.
Article: Is spinal tuberculosis contagious?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections are recognized for their public health implications, less is known about the infectiousness of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, specifically, spinal tuberculosis or Pott's disease. We present a case of spinal tuberculosis with concomitant active pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of chest radiographic abnormalities or symptoms, and review the literature regarding infectiousness of concomitant spinal and pulmonary tuberculosis.International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 02/2010; 14(8):e659-66. · 2.17 Impact Factor
Article: Factors associated with negative direct sputum examination in Asian and African HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (ANRS 1260).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To identify factors associated with negative direct sputum examination among African and Cambodian patients co-infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. Prospective multicenter study (ANRS1260) conducted in Cambodia, Senegal and Central African Republic. Univariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify clinical and radiological features associated with negative direct sputum examination in HIV-infected patients with positive M. tuberculosis culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. Between September 2002 and December 2005, 175 co-infected patients were hospitalized with at least one respiratory symptom and pulmonary radiographic anomaly. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) examination was positive in sputum samples from 110 subjects (63%) and negative in 65 patients (37%). Most patients were at an advanced stage of HIV disease (92% at stage III or IV of the WHO classification) with a median CD4 cell count of 36/mm³. In this context, we found that sputum AFB negativity was more frequent in co-infected subjects with associated respiratory tract infections (OR = 2.8 [95%CI:1.1-7.0]), dyspnea (OR = 2.5 [95%CI:1.1-5.6]), and localized interstitial opacities (OR = 3.1 [95%CI:1.3-7.6]), but was less frequent with CD4 ≤ 50/mm³ (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.90), adenopathies (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.93]) and cavitation (OR = 0.1 [95%CI:0.03-0.6]). One novel finding of this study is the association between concomitant respiratory tract infection and negative sputum AFB, particularly in Cambodia. This finding suggests that repeating AFB testing in AFB-negative patients should be conducted when broad spectrum antibiotic treatment does not lead to complete recovery from respiratory symptoms. In HIV-infected patients with a CD4 cell count below 50/mm3 without an identified cause of pneumonia, systematic AFB direct sputum examination is justified because of atypical clinical features (without cavitation) and high pulmonary mycobacterial burden.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e21212. · 4.09 Impact Factor