Diagnosis of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in a Dog Using Morphologic, Cytochemical, and Flow Cytometric Techniques

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. .harvard. edu
Veterinary Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 1.21). 02/2001; 30(1):19-24.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic myelogenous leukemia was diagnosed in a 3.5-year-old neutered male Golden Retriever. The diagnosis was based on persistent leukocytosis (>73.0X10(3)/microliter), composed of a proportionate left shift to progranulocytes with no evidence of underlying inflammation, infection, or neoplasia. Marked dysplasia was evident in neutrophils and platelets in peripheral blood. Bone marrow and splenic aspirates were dominated by mature and immature neutrophils with < 2% myeloblasts. Cytochemical and flow cytometric assays confirmed that cells in the peripheral blood and spleen were of committed neutrophil lineage. The dog responded initially to treatment with hydroxyurea, but developed acute undifferentiated leukemia approximately 83 days after initial presentation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because of the complexity, subjectivity, time, and technical skill required for determination of manual bone marrow differential cell counts, an alternative method is needed. Several flow cytometric methods have been described, but all have limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a technique for bone marrow differential cell counting based on flow cytometric evaluation of CD45 expression and intracellular complexity (CD45 scatter plots). Bone marrow was obtained from 15 dogs that were being evaluated for hematologic disorders. In preliminary studies, the location of bone marrow subpopulations in the CD45 scatter plots was evaluated by labeling bone marrow with lineage-specific markers. A template was developed to identify these cell populations. Gates were set to identify granulocytes, myeloblasts, monocyte/macrophages, lymphocytes, and nucleated erythroid populations. The CD45 labeling technique accurately quantified granulocytes, myeloblasts, erythroid precursors, and lymphocytes in canine bone marrow. Correlation coefficients with manual counts for granulocytes, myeloblasts, erythroid cells, lymphocytes, and monocyte/macrophages were 0.90, 0.89, 0.96, 0.91, and 0.54, respectively. The capacity of the CD45 scatter-plot technique to quantify lymphocytes and myeloblasts is an advantage over previously described techniques. The simplicity of the CD45 labeling method and the ease with which batches of samples can be analyzed makes the technique potentially applicable as a routine test in clinical and research laboratories.
    Veterinary Clinical Pathology 02/2004; 33(2):96-101. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2004.tb00355.x · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 12-week-old greyhound had a two-day history of lethargy, inappetence and shifting lameness. Clinical examination revealed pyrexia and hepatosplenomegaly. Haematological examination showed anaemia, thrombocytopenla, neutropenla and large numbers of atypical mononuclear leucocytes. A diagnosis of acute B cell lymphoblastic leukaemia was made following flow cytometric immunophenotyping of the leucocytes. The owner declined further evaluation and the dog was treated symptomatically with antibiotics. After a brief improvement, the dog's condition deteriorated and it was euthanased four days after initial presentation. The case was unusual because acute lymphoid leukaemia in the dog is most frequently reported in mature animals. This is in contrast to humans, where acute leukaemia is one of the most common childhood cancers.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 12/2004; 45(11):553-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2004.tb00203.x · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for characterising the composition of complex cell populations. The accuracy and precision of this technology for describing and enumerating cells exceeds traditional methods. The number of diagnostic veterinary laboratories with access to a dedicated machine is increasing, and there is the potential to offer a clinical flow cytometry service. The improved availability of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to cell markers expressed by the leukocytes of companion animals, permits the implementation of comprehensive mAb panels suitable for diagnosis of lympho- and myeloproliferative disease. Reticulated erythrocyte and platelet quantification, antiglobulin assays for immune-mediated cytopenias, lymphocyte subset analysis, and immunophenotyping of lymphoma and leukemia, have been validated for companion animal samples on the flow cytometer. It is now timely to consider the role of flow cytometry in diagnostic practice, and the requirement for quality assurance and standardization of testing procedures.
    The Veterinary Journal 12/2005; 170(3):278-88. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2004.06.010 · 2.17 Impact Factor
Show more