Mutation and altered expression of beta-catenin during gallbladder carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT Gallbladder carcinoma has two main morphologic developmental pathways: a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and an adenoma-carcinoma sequence. beta-Catenin is a key regulator of the cadherin-mediated cell adhesion system, and altered expression and mutation of beta-catenin have been identified in many human malignancies. To clarify its role in gallbladder carcinogenesis, we investigated mutation and immunohistochemical expression of beta-catenin in adenomas, dysplasias, and carcinomas. We classified adenomas according to the expression of apomucins and cytokeratin and compared the mutational and expression pattern among each type. beta-Catenin mutations were identified in 58% (14 of 24) of the adenomas, and they were absent from all carcinomas (37 cases) and dysplasias (13 cases). Altered expression of beta-catenin, such as nuclear or cytoplasmic expression and loss of membranous expression, was also significantly higher in adenomas than in dysplasias or carcinomas (p <0.001). Of the adenomas, papillary adenomas and tubular adenomas of intestinal type showed infrequent beta-catenin abnormality, which was similar to the carcinomas. The cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of beta-catenin in carcinomas was correlated with less aggressive tumor behavior; in particular, cytoplasmic expression was associated with improved patient outcome (p = 0.028). Gallbladder adenoma may be a heterogeneous entity, and the majority of adenomas are not responsible for carcinoma progression.
- SourceAvailable from: Angélica MeloRevista medica de Chile 01/2002; 130(12). DOI:10.4067/S0034-98872002001200004 · 0.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, including the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas, constitute the largest group of malignant tumors. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common neoplastic diseases in Western countries and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor-suppressor gene during early adenoma formation is thought to be the first genetic event in the process of colorectal carcinogenesis followed by mutations in oncogenes like K-Ras and tumor-suppressor genes like p53. Identification of the interaction of APC with the proto-oncogene beta-catenin has linked colorectal carcinogenesis to the Wnt-signal transduction pathway. The main function of APC is thought to be the regulation of free beta-catenin in concert with the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) and Axin proteins. Loss of APC function, inactivation of Axin or activating beta-catenin mutations result in the cellular accumulation of beta-catenin. Upon translocation to the nucleus beta-catenin serves as an activator of T-cell factor (Tcf)-dependent transcription leading to an increased expression of several specific target genes including c-Myc, cyclin D1, MMP-7, and ITF-2. While APC mutations are almost exclusively found in colorectal cancers, deregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin/Tcf signaling is also common in other gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal human cancers. In a fraction of hepatocellular carcinomas the Wnt pathway is deregulated by inactivation of Axin or stabilizing mutations of beta-catenin. The majority of hepatoblastomas and a group of gastric cancers also carry beta-catenin mutations. Clearly, this pathway harbors great potential for future applications in cancer diagnostics, staging, and therapy.Digestion 02/2002; 66(3):131-44. DOI:10.1159/000066755 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Subserous gallbladder carcinoma is difficult to diagnose and treat. There are no tissue markers with prognostic value in this type of tumor. To study the immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin alpha and beta catenin in subserous gallbladder carcinoma. One hundred seventeen subjects (103 women and 14 men aged 62 and 69 years as a mean, respectively), were studied. Thirty five gallbladder samples without evidence of cancer were used as controls. Expression of markers was studied with standard immunohistochemical techniques for formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. Ninety seven percent of tumors were adenocarcinoma. A lower or absent expression of E-cadherin, alpha catenin and beta catenin was observed in 26, 33 and 29% of tumors, respectively. Actuarial five years survival was 37%. No association between macroscopic features of the tumor and survival was observed. Well differentiated tumors had a 73% survival, whereas less differentiated tumors had a 30% survival. Tumors with a normal expression of the markers had a slightly better survival, although not significant (p = 0.06). Approximately 30% of subserous gallbladder carcinoma have an abnormal expression of E-cadherin, alpha catenin and beta catenin. This abnormal expression has no relationship with prognosis and is probably secondary to the aberrant genic expression of the tumor.Revista medica de Chile 01/2003; 130(12):1349-57. · 0.37 Impact Factor