Disruption of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult mice, and in human cortical neuronal precursor cells in culture, by amyloid beta-peptide: implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT The adult mammalian brain contains populations of stem cells that can proliferate and then differentiate into neurons or glia. The highest concentration of such neural progenitor cells (NPC) is located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and these cells can produce new olfactory bulb and cerebral cortical neurons. NPC may provide a cellular reservoir for replacement of cells lost during normal cell turnover and after brain injury. However, neurogenesis does not compensate for neuronal loss in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting the possibility that impaired neurogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of such disorders. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), a self-aggregating neurotoxic protein thought to cause AD, can impair neurogenesis in the SVZ/cerebral cortex of adult mice and in human cortical NPC in culture. The proliferation and migration of NPC in the SVZ of amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutant mice, and in mice receiving an intraventricular infusion of Abeta, were greatly decreased compared to control mice. Studies of NPC neurosphere cultures derived from human embryonic cerebral cortex showed that Abeta can suppress NPC proliferation and differentiation, and can induce apoptosis. The adverse effects of Abeta on neurogenesis were associated with a disruption of calcium regulation in the NPC. Our data show that Abeta can impair cortical neurogenesis, and suggest that this adverse effect of Abeta contributes to the depletion of neurons and the resulting olfactory and cognitive deficits in AD.
Article: The influence of beta-amyloid 1-42 on inflammatory processes and regenerative mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease.Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 07/2011; 7(4):S416. · 5.90 Impact Factor
Article: The pathological roles of ganglioside metabolism in Alzheimer's disease: effects of gangliosides on neurogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Conversion of the soluble, nontoxic amyloid β-protein (Aβ) into an aggregated, toxic form rich in β-sheets is a key step in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been suggested that Aβ induces changes in neuronal membrane fluidity as a result of its interactions with membrane components such as cholesterol, phospholipids, and gangliosides. Gangliosides are known to bind Aβ. A complex of GM1 and Aβ, termed "GAβ", has been identified in AD brains. Abnormal ganglioside metabolism also may occur in AD brains. We have reported an increase of Chol-1α antigens, GQ1bα and GT1aα, in the brain of transgenic mouse AD model. GQ1bα and GT1aα exhibit high affinities to Aβs. The presence of Chol-1α gangliosides represents evidence for genesis of cholinergic neurons in AD brains. We evaluated the effects of GM1 and Aβ1-40 on mouse neuroepithelial cells. Treatment of these cells simultaneously with GM1 and Aβ1-40 caused a significant reduction of cell number, suggesting that Aβ1-40 and GM1 cooperatively exert a cytotoxic effect on neuroepithelial cells. An understanding of the mechanism on the interaction of GM1 and Aβs in AD may contribute to the development of new neuroregenerative therapies for this disorder.International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 01/2011; 2011:193618.
Article: The roles of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neurogenesis: Implications to pathogenesis and therapy of Alzheimer disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide is the derivative of amyloid precursor protein (APP) generated through sequential proteolytic processing by β- and γ-secretases. Excessive accumulation of Aβ, the main constituent of amyloid plaques, has been implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It was found recently that the impairments of neurogenesis in brain were associated with the pathogenesis of AD. Furthermore recent findings implicated that APP could function to influence proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPC) and might regulate transcriptional activity of various genes. Studies demonstrated that influence of neurogenesis by APP is conferred differently via its two separate domains, soluble secreted APPs (sAPPs, mainly sAPPα) and APP intracellular domain (AICD). The sAPPα was shown to be neuroprotective and important to neurogenesis, whereas AICD was found to negatively modulate neurogenesis. Furthermore, it was demonstrated recently that microRNA could function to regulate APP expression, APP processing, Aβ accumulation and subsequently influence neurotoxicity and neurogenesis related to APP, which was implicated to AD pathogenesis, especially for sporadic AD. Based on data accumulated, secretase balances were proposed. These secretase balances could influence the downstream balance related to regulation of neurogenesis by AICD and sAPPα as well as balance related to influence of neuron viability by Aβ and sAPPα. Disruption of these secretase balances could be culprits to AD onset.Cell adhesion & migration 07/2011; 5(4):280-92. · 1.82 Impact Factor