A critical issue in developmental cognitive neuroscience is the extent to which the functional neuroanatomy underlying task performance differs in adults and children. Direct comparisons of brain activation in the left frontal and extrastriate cortex were made in adults and children (aged 7 to 10 years) performing single-word processing tasks with visual presentation; differences were found in circumscribed frontal and extrastriate regions. Conceivably, these differences could be attributable exclusively to performance discrepancies; alternatively, maturational differences in functional neuroanatomy could exist despite similar performance. Some of the brain regions examined showed differences attributable to age independent of performance, suggesting that maturation of the pattern of regional activations for these tasks is incomplete at age 10.
"In addition to the aforementioned reasoning, further consideration of the age of their sample and the fact that cognitive neuroscience research indicates differences between how adults and children process verbal information (e.g., Schlaggar et al., 2002), it is likely that the generalizability of Zourbanos et al.'s (2013) findings remain somewhat limited. In the present study, we build off Zourbanos et al.'s study to examine the effectiveness of using instructional self-talk versus motivational self-talk for skilled adult athletes utilizing a complex, real-life outcome based motor skill; accuracy of free kick goal kicking in Gaelic football. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research examined the relative effectiveness of instructional versus motivational self-talk for skilled athletes. Forty Gaelic footballers completed a shooting accuracy task with their dominant and nondominant feet. Results indicated significantly more accurate performance when executing the task using the dominant foot and motivational as compared to instructional self-talk. No difference emerged between the two types of self-talk within the nondominant foot condition. Results challenge the widely held view that instructional self-talk is most effective for accuracy-based tasks and should prompt practitioners to consider the skill level of their clients when constructing self-talk interventions.
Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 04/2015; 27(2). DOI:10.1080/10413200.2014.959624 · 1.06 Impact Factor
"The present finding that the left IFG was identified not only in adult but also in child studies is in line with the results of the meta-analysis on child reading by Houdé et al. (2010), which identified very similar peaks in left IFG and PRG regions. In developmental studies, the typical pattern is reliable left IFG engagement even in the early stages of reading acquisition (e.g., Church et al., 2008, Gaillard et al., 2003) and increase of engagement with increasing age (Bitan et al., 2007b; Booth et al., 2003, 2004; Brown et al., 2005; Schlaggar et Fabio Richlan 25 al., 2002; Shaywitz et al., 2002; Turkeltaub et al., 2003). Our meta-analysis showed that the peak of the age-related increase was not located in the IFG proper but in the most dorsal part of the left inferior frontal cluster corresponding to the PRG. "
") and the N170 continues to strengthen through adolescence (Posner & McCandliss, 1999; Schlaggar et al., 2002). This experience-dependent neural signature can also be observed in adulthood as the increased selectivity for learned orthography is seen functionally in adults learning to read a second language (Baker et al., 2007) and structurally in adults learning to read a first language (Carreiras et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adult human brain would appear to have specialized and independent neural systems for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has demonstrated greater selectivity for written words in the left over right hemisphere, and, conversely, greater selectivity for faces in the right over left hemisphere. This study examines the emergence of these complementary neural profiles, as well as the possible relationship between them. Using behavioral and neurophysiological measures, in adults, we observed the standard finding of greater accuracy and a larger N170 ERP component in the left over right hemisphere for words, and conversely, greater accuracy and a larger N170 in the right over the left hemisphere for faces. We also found that, although children aged 7-12 years revealed the adult hemispheric pattern for words, they showed neither a behavioral nor a neural hemispheric superiority for faces. Of particular interest, the magnitude of their N170 for faces in the right hemisphere was related to that of the N170 for words in their left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face recognition and of word recognition do not develop independently, and that word lateralization may precede and drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account for the findings, in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development, is discussed.
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