Cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality in male and female physicians: a cohort study in Estonia.
ABSTRACT To evaluate whether the presumed knowledge of physicians about healthier lifestyle decreases their risk of cancer and mortality, a retrospective cohort study of male and female physicians was conducted in Estonia.
The cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality of 3,673 physicians (870 M, 2,803 F) in Estonia was compared with the rates of the general population. Information on cancer cases and deaths in the cohort between 1983 and 1998 was obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and the mortality database of Estonia.
The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 1.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.48) in women and 0.92 (95% CI 0.73-1.13) in men. Female physicians had an elevated risk for breast cancer (SIR 2.03, 95% CI 1.62-2.51) and myeloid leukaemia (SIR 3.69, 95% CI 1.35-8.02). Male physicians had an excess of skin melanoma (SIR 4.88, 95% CI 1.58-11.38). A large deficit of lung cancer was observed (SIR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11-0.48). The very low all-cause mortality in the cohort (standardized mortality ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.50-0.61) was mainly due to large deficits in deaths from lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and external causes. The suicide rate in the cohort was lower than in the general population.
No health risks were observed in the cohort that could be linked to the occupational exposures of physicians. The pattern of cancer incidence and mortality seen in physicians in Estonia is similar to the pattern seen among professional classes in other countries.
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ABSTRACT: To study the mortality pattern of Norwegian doctors, people in human service occupations, other graduates and the general population during the period 1960-2000 by decade, gender and age. The total number of deaths in the study population was 1 583 559. Census data from 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990 relating to education were linked to data on 14 main causes of death from Statistics Norway, followed up for two five-year periods after census, and analyzed as stratified incidence-rate data. Mortality rate ratios were computed as combined Mantel-Haenzel estimates for each sex, adjusting for both age and period when appropriate. The doctors had a lower mortality rate than the general population for all causes of death except suicide. The mortality rate ratios for other graduates and human service occupations were 0.7-0.8 compared with the general population. However, doctors have a higher mortality than other graduates. The lowest estimates of mortality for doctors were for endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, diseases in the urogenital tract or genitalia, digestive diseases and sudden death, for which the numbers were nearly half of those for the general population. The differences in mortality between doctors and the general population increased during the periods. Between 1960 and 2000 mortality for doctors converged towards the mortality for other university graduates and for people in human service occupations. However, there was a parallel increase in the gap between these groups and the rest of the population. The slightly higher mortality for doctors compared with mortality for other university graduates may be explained by the higher suicide rate for doctors.BMC Public Health 03/2011; 11:173. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-173 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To describe a psychiatric profile and characteristics of physicians who killed themselves in Quebec between 1992 and 2009. Method. The cases of 36 physicians (7 females and 29 males) and 36 nonphysicians who committed suicide were matched for age and gender and examined in a nested case control design. All subjects were judged as definite suicide by the Quebec Coroner Head Office. Consensus regarding DSM-IV diagnoses was established by two forensic psychiatrists. Results. Rates of all Axis I diagnoses were 83% for physicians and 91% for nonphysicians at the time of suicide. Major depressive disorders were the most frequently observed pathology in both groups (61% and 56%, resp.). Conclusions. Physicians and nonphysicians who committed suicide in Quebec suffered from the same type of psychiatric disorder at the time of killing themselves. The findings advocate strongly for more efficient suicide prevention measures including early detection and treatment of mood disorders for the physicians.Depression research and treatment 01/2011; 2011:936327. DOI:10.1155/2011/936327
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ABSTRACT: Physicians have a key role to play in combating tobacco use and reducing the tobacco induced harm to health. However, there is a paucity of information about tobacco-use and cessation among physicians in developing countries. To assess the need for and nature of smoking cessation services among physicians in developing countries, a detailed literature review of studies published in English, between 1987 and 2010 was carried out. The electronic databases Medline and Pub Med were searched for published studies. The findings show that there are regional variations in the current smoking prevalence, quitting intentions, and cessation services among physicians. Smoking prevalence (median) was highest in Central/Eastern Europe (37%), followed by Africa (29%), Central and South America (25%) and Asia (17.5%). There were significant gender differences in smoking prevalence across studies, with higher prevalence among males than females. Smoking at work or in front of patients was commonly practiced by physicians in some countries. Asking about smoking status or advising patients to quit smoking was not common practice among the physicians, especially among smoker physicians. Organized smoking cessation programs for physicians did not exist in all of these regions. This review suggests that while smoking of physicians varies across different developing regions; prevalence rates tend to be higher than among physicians in developed countries. Quitting rates were low among the physicians, and the delivery of advice on quitting smoking was not common across the studies. To promote tobacco control and increase cessation in populations, there is a need to build physicians' capacity so that they can engage in tobacco use prevention and cessation activities.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12/2013; 11(1):429-455. DOI:10.3390/ijerph110100429 · 1.99 Impact Factor