Chronic renal failure, nursing diagnoses and interventions.
ABSTRACT Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a clinical condition resulting from a multitude of pathologic processes which lead to derangement and insufficiency of renal excretory and regulatory functions (uraemia). There are normally two million glomeruli in both the kidneys of an adult, which filter an average amount of 120 ml of blood per minute. This filtration is called glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the case of damaged parenchyma tissues due to renal disease, the filtration rate goes down to 20-30 ml per minute. This is when findings and symptoms of renal failure come about. In the case of a filtration rate less than 10 ml (GFR< 10 ml/min), a patient is understood to have reached the final stage of renal failure. At this stage, fluid and electrolyte balance is disturbed, azotemia increases and systemic manifestations (uraemia) occur (1,2). Renal failure is a condition in which the kidneys cannot fulfil their function of discharging metabolic waste and of maintaining the fluid and electrolyte balance. It can be divided into two groups: acute and chronic. This paper discusses the etiology, pathophysiology and signs and symptoms f CRF as well as the diagnosis and interventions required by nurses. Deficit, nursing priority and intervention are discussed in relation to patient problems.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hemodialysis patients experience frequent and varied mucocutaneous manifestations in addition to hair and nail disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatological changes among patients with end-stage renal disease under hemodialysis in a hemodialysis unit in Tanta University hospitals over a period of 6 months, and to evaluate the relations of these dermatological disorders with the duration of hemodialysis as well as with different laboratory parameters in these patients. Ninety-three patients with end-stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis (56 males and 37 females) were selected and included in this cross-sectional, descriptive, analytic study. Their ages ranged from 18-80 years. All patients underwent thorough general and dermatological examinations. Laboratory investigations (complete blood counts, renal and liver function tests, serum parathormone levels, serum electrolytes, alkaline phosphatase, random blood sugar, and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies) were evaluated. This study revealed that most patients had nonspecific skin changes, including xerosis, pruritus, pallor, ecchymosis, hyperpigmentation, and follicular hyperkeratosis. Nail and hair changes were commonly found, especially half and half nail, koilonychia, subungal hyperkeratosis, melanonychia, onychomycosis, and brittle and lusterless hair. Mucous membrane changes detected were pallor, xerostomia, macroglossia, bleeding gums, aphthous stomatitis, and yellow sclera. There was a significant positive correlation between the presence of pruritus and serum parathormone level. There was a significant negative correlation between the presence of mucous membrane changes and hemoglobin level. Nonspecific mucocutaneous manifestations are common in patients on hemodialysis, particularly xerosis, dyspigmentation, and pruritus. Early and prompt recognition and treatment of dermatological conditions in patients on dialysis may improve their quality of life.Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology 01/2014; 7:313-319.