Chronic renal failure, nursing diagnoses and interventions.
ABSTRACT Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a clinical condition resulting from a multitude of pathologic processes which lead to derangement and insufficiency of renal excretory and regulatory functions (uraemia). There are normally two million glomeruli in both the kidneys of an adult, which filter an average amount of 120 ml of blood per minute. This filtration is called glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the case of damaged parenchyma tissues due to renal disease, the filtration rate goes down to 20-30 ml per minute. This is when findings and symptoms of renal failure come about. In the case of a filtration rate less than 10 ml (GFR< 10 ml/min), a patient is understood to have reached the final stage of renal failure. At this stage, fluid and electrolyte balance is disturbed, azotemia increases and systemic manifestations (uraemia) occur (1,2). Renal failure is a condition in which the kidneys cannot fulfil their function of discharging metabolic waste and of maintaining the fluid and electrolyte balance. It can be divided into two groups: acute and chronic. This paper discusses the etiology, pathophysiology and signs and symptoms f CRF as well as the diagnosis and interventions required by nurses. Deficit, nursing priority and intervention are discussed in relation to patient problems.