Testing association of statistically inferred haplotypes with discrete and continuous traits in samples of unrelated individuals.
ABSTRACT There have been increasing efforts to relate drug efficacy and disease predisposition with genetic polymorphisms. We present statistical tests for association of haplotype frequencies with discrete and continuous traits in samples of unrelated individuals. Haplotype frequencies are estimated through the expectation-maximization algorithm, and each individual in the sample is expanded into all possible haplotype configurations with corresponding probabilities, conditional on their genotype. A regression-based approach is then used to relate inferred haplotype probabilities to the response. The relationship of this technique to commonly used approaches developed for case-control data is discussed. We confirm the proper size of the test under H(0) and find an increase in power under the alternative by comparing test results using inferred haplotypes with single-marker tests using simulated data. More importantly, analysis of real data comprised of a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphisms spaced along a 12-cM chromosomal region allows us to confirm the utility of the haplotype approach as well as the validity and usefulness of the proposed statistical technique. The method appears to be successful in relating data from multiple, correlated markers to response.
Article: Variation in xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes, household chemical exposures, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that environmental exposures to pesticides, tobacco, and other xenobiotic chemicals may increase risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We sought to evaluate the role of genes involved in xenobiotic transport and metabolism in childhood ALL risk, both alone and in conjunction with household chemical exposures previously found to be associated with childhood ALL risk. We conducted a population-based epidemiologic study of 377 cases and 448 controls in California, utilizing a haplotype-based approach to evaluate 42 xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes in conjunction with data on self-reported household chemical exposures. We identified significant associations of childhood ALL risk with haplotypes of ABCB1, ARNT, CYP2C8, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, and IDH1. In addition, certain haplotypes showed significant joint effects with self-reported household chemical exposures on risk of childhood ALL. Specifically, elevated risks associated with use of paints in the home (ever) and indoor insecticides (pre-birth) were limited to subjects carrying specific haplotypes of CYP2C8 and ABCB1, respectively. Our results provide support for a role of xenobiotic transport and metabolism pathways in risk of childhood ALL and indicate that genes in these pathways may modulate the risk of disease associated with use of common household chemicals. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and localize specific causal variants.Cancer Causes and Control 06/2012; 23(8):1367-75. · 2.88 Impact Factor
Article: Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Two Novel BMP15 Mutations Responsible for an Atypical Hyperprolificacy Phenotype in Sheep[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Some sheep breeds are naturally prolific, and they are very informative for the studies of reproductive genetics and physiology. Major genes increasing litter size (LS) and ovulation rate (OR) were suspected in the French Grivette and the Polish Olkuska sheep populations, respectively. To identify genetic variants responsible for the highly prolific phenotype in these two breeds, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by complementary genetic and functional analyses were performed. Highly prolific ewes (cases) and normal prolific ewes (controls) from each breed were genotyped using the Illumina OvineSNP50 Genotyping Beadchip. In both populations, an X chromosome region, close to the BMP15 gene, harbored clusters of markers with suggestive evidence of association at significance levels between 1E−05 and 1E−07. The BMP15 candidate gene was then sequenced, and two novel non-conservative mutations called FecXGr and FecXO were identified in the Grivette and Olkuska breeds, respectively. The two mutations were associated with the highly prolific phenotype (pFecXGr = 5.98E−06 and pFecXO = 2.55E−08). Homozygous ewes for the mutated allele showed a significantly increased prolificacy (FecXGr/FecXGr, LS = 2.50±0.65 versus FecX+/FecXGr, LS = 1.93±0.42, p<1E−03 and FecXO/FecXO, OR = 3.28±0.85 versus FecX+/FecXO, OR = 2.02±0.47, p<1E−03). Both mutations are located in very well conserved motifs of the protein and altered the BMP15 signaling activity in vitro using a BMP-responsive luciferase test in COV434 granulosa cells. Thus, we have identified two novel mutations in the BMP15 gene associated with increased LS and OR. Notably, homozygous FecXGr/FecXGr Grivette and homozygous FecXO/FecXO Olkuska ewes are hyperprolific in striking contrast with the sterility exhibited by all other known homozygous BMP15 mutations. Our results bring new insights into the key role played by the BMP15 protein in ovarian function and could contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of women′s fertility disorders.PLoS Genetics 04/2013; 9(4):e1003482. · 8.69 Impact Factor
Article: Associations between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene is part of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and plays a critical role in cell development and growth regulation. TCF7L2 variants rs12255372 and rs7903146 have been associated with risk of Type 2 diabetes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between TCF7L2 and breast cancer risk. We investigated the associations between 25 TCF7L2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women from the 4-Corner's Breast Cancer Study, the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study, and the Mexico Breast Cancer Study. A total of 4,703 Hispanic (2,093 cases, 2,610 controls) and 3,031 NHW (1,431 cases, 1,600 controls) women were included. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression to estimate the association between the TCF7L2 SNPs and breast cancer risk. We also examined effect modification by self-reported ethnicity, genetic admixture, and diabetes history. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, four TCF7L2 SNPs were significantly associated with breast cancer overall: rs7903146 (OR(TT) 1.24; 95 % CI 1.03-1.49), rs3750805 (OR(AT/TT) 1.15; 95 % CI 1.03-1.28), rs7900150 (OR(AA) 1.23; 95 % 1.07-1.42), and rs1225404 (OR(CC) 0.82; 95 % 0.70-0.94). Among women with a history of diabetes, the TT genotype of rs3750804 increased breast cancer risk (OR, 2.46; 95 % CI 1.28-4.73). However, there was no association among women without a diabetes history (OR, 1.06; 95 % CI 0.85-1.32). We did not find significant interactions by ethnicity or by genetic admixture. Findings support an association between TCF7L2 and breast cancer and history of diabetes modifies this association for specific variants.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10/2012; · 4.43 Impact Factor