Article

Effect of supplemental zinc on the growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Program in International Nutrition and the Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 07/2002; 75(6):1062-71.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multiple studies have been carried out to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on children's growth. The results of these studies are inconsistent, and the factors responsible for these varied outcomes are unknown.
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled intervention trials were therefore completed to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on the physical growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children.
A total of 33 acceptable studies with appropriate data were identified by MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) searches and other methods. Weighted mean effect sizes (expressed in SD units) were calculated for changes in height, weight, weight-for-height, and serum zinc concentration by using random-effects models; factors associated with effect sizes were explored by meta-regression techniques.
Zinc supplementation produced highly significant, positive responses in height and weight increments, with effect sizes of 0.350 (95% CI: 0.189, 0.511) and 0.309 (0.178, 0.439), respectively. There was no significant effect of zinc on weight-for-height indexes [weighted mean effect size: -0.018 (-0.132, 0.097)]. Zinc supplementation caused a large increase in the children's serum zinc concentrations, with an effect size of 0.820 (0.499, 1.14). Growth responses were greater in children with low initial weight-for-age z scores and in those aged >6 mo with low initial height-for-age z scores.
Interventions to improve children's zinc nutriture should be considered in populations at risk of zinc deficiency, especially where there are elevated rates of underweight or stunting. The population mean serum zinc concentration is a useful indicator of the successful delivery and absorption of zinc supplements in children.

0 Followers
 · 
81 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since its first discovery in an Iranian male in 1961, zinc deficiency in humans is now known to be an important malnutrition problem world‑wide. It is more prevalent in areas of high cereal and low animal food consumption. The diet may not necessarily be low in zinc, but its bio‑availability plays a major role in its absorption. Phytic acid is the main known inhibitor of zinc. Compared to adults, infants, children, adolescents, pregnant, and lactating women have increased requirements for zinc and thus, are at increased risk of zinc depletion. Zinc deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure. Epidermal, gastrointestinal, central nervous, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems are the organs most affected clinically by zinc deficiency. Clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. So far, blood plasma/serum zinc concentration, dietary intake, and stunting prevalence are the best known indicators of zinc deficiency. Four main intervention strategies for combating zinc deficiency include dietary modification/diversification, supplementation, fortification, and bio‑fortification. The choice of each method depends on the availability of resources, technical feasibility, target group, and social acceptance. In this paper, we provide a review on zinc biochemical and physiological functions, metabolism including, absorption, excretion, and homeostasis, zinc bio‑availability (inhibitors and enhancers), human requirement, groups at high‑risk, consequences and causes of zinc deficiency, evaluation of zinc status, and prevention strategies of zinc deficiency.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 01/2013; 18:144-157. · 0.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nutrition and an Active Life: From Knowledge to Action is an anthology by leading public health experts from the Pan American Health Organization and the international development community. The book's selections focus on how research in nutrition and the promotion of active lifestyles can provide vital input for the creation of public policy and planning and for the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of programs. You and I, in one way or another, stand to directly benefit from this science and its effective application. The knowledge gained from the research presented here has the power to transform the lives of mothers and children, the economically active population, older adults, and all age groups whose sedentary lifestyle places them at greater risk of developing life-threatening chronic diseases. Nutrition and an Active Life: From Knowledge to Action is an important contribution that should be of particular interest to prac-titioners, researchers, and decision-makers in the fields of health promotion, community education, nutrition, maternal and child health, physical activity, policy development in public health and urban planning, social communications, and other related areas.
    Nutrition and Active Life - From Knowledge to Action, First edited by Wilma B. Freire, 01/2005: chapter The Best Buy Project in Peru: Nutrition Recommendations within the Context of Local Urban Market Realities: pages 131-140; Pan-American Health Organization., ISBN: 92 75 31612 1
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Immunological mechanism and dietary nutrients are important mediators in the health of children. In this intervention study a dietary advice is given to children between1 and 6 years of age with recurrent respiratory tract in- fections. Could a change in nutrient intake result in an altered clinical outcome? Design:In this prospective cohort study 61 children were included and evaluated at a paediatric outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 32 chil- dren included at an infant welfare centre. The patient group followed the dietary advice (green vegetables, beef, whole milk, full-fat butter) for three months, in which parents filled out their dietary intake and health status on a daily basis. A follow up form was filled out by the parents 3 months after completion of the study period. For statistical analysis the programme SPSS version 15.0 was used. Results:In the patient group there was a statistical significant reduction in days with a respiratory infection (15.7 to 11.5 days a month), subfebrile temperature days (1.9 to 0.5 days a month) and febrile temperature days (1.0 to 0.7 days a month) compared to the control group. Also, antibiotic use decreased sig-nificantly. No significant changes were measured in body mass index. Conclusions:A change of diet towards green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter has positive health effects in children. This diet may work by adding nutrients to optimize immunological mechanisms. There were no adverse effects and it can be utilized by general pedia-tricians and general practitioners.
    Food and Nutrition Sciences 10/2013; 4:71-77. DOI:10.4236/fns.2013.410A011

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from