Effect of supplemental zinc on the growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 1-3

Program in International Nutrition and the Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 07/2002; 75(6):1062-71.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multiple studies have been carried out to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on children's growth. The results of these studies are inconsistent, and the factors responsible for these varied outcomes are unknown.
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled intervention trials were therefore completed to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on the physical growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children.
A total of 33 acceptable studies with appropriate data were identified by MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) searches and other methods. Weighted mean effect sizes (expressed in SD units) were calculated for changes in height, weight, weight-for-height, and serum zinc concentration by using random-effects models; factors associated with effect sizes were explored by meta-regression techniques.
Zinc supplementation produced highly significant, positive responses in height and weight increments, with effect sizes of 0.350 (95% CI: 0.189, 0.511) and 0.309 (0.178, 0.439), respectively. There was no significant effect of zinc on weight-for-height indexes [weighted mean effect size: -0.018 (-0.132, 0.097)]. Zinc supplementation caused a large increase in the children's serum zinc concentrations, with an effect size of 0.820 (0.499, 1.14). Growth responses were greater in children with low initial weight-for-age z scores and in those aged >6 mo with low initial height-for-age z scores.
Interventions to improve children's zinc nutriture should be considered in populations at risk of zinc deficiency, especially where there are elevated rates of underweight or stunting. The population mean serum zinc concentration is a useful indicator of the successful delivery and absorption of zinc supplements in children.

  • Source
    • "Green vegetables contain more zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C than other different colored vegetables [7]. These nutrients have sustained supportive effects on the immune system in children [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]. Beef contains more iron, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin E compared to other kinds of meat [7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Immunological mechanism and dietary nutrients are important mediators in the health of children. In this intervention study a dietary advice is given to children between1 and 6 years of age with recurrent respiratory tract in- fections. Could a change in nutrient intake result in an altered clinical outcome? Design:In this prospective cohort study 61 children were included and evaluated at a paediatric outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 32 chil- dren included at an infant welfare centre. The patient group followed the dietary advice (green vegetables, beef, whole milk, full-fat butter) for three months, in which parents filled out their dietary intake and health status on a daily basis. A follow up form was filled out by the parents 3 months after completion of the study period. For statistical analysis the programme SPSS version 15.0 was used. Results:In the patient group there was a statistical significant reduction in days with a respiratory infection (15.7 to 11.5 days a month), subfebrile temperature days (1.9 to 0.5 days a month) and febrile temperature days (1.0 to 0.7 days a month) compared to the control group. Also, antibiotic use decreased sig-nificantly. No significant changes were measured in body mass index. Conclusions:A change of diet towards green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter has positive health effects in children. This diet may work by adding nutrients to optimize immunological mechanisms. There were no adverse effects and it can be utilized by general pedia-tricians and general practitioners.
    Food and Nutrition Sciences 10/2013; 4(10):71-77. DOI:10.4236/fns.2013.410A011
  • Source
    • "Moreover, factors unrelated to the level of Zn nutriture, such as recent meals, time of day, infection, tissue catabolism, and pregnancy, can also affect serum/plasma Zn concentrations (King 1990; Hambidge & Krebs 1995). Thus, the serum/plasma Zn concentration may not always be a reliable indicator of an individual's true Zn status (Brown et al. 2002). Nevertheless, a recent systematic review concluded that serum/plasma Zn concentration was responsive to both Zn supplementation and depletion and it remains the most widely used biomarker for Zn (Lowe et al. 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on serum/plasma Zn status in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 13 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on serum/plasma Zn concentration was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional status and risk of bias. The pooled β of status was 0.09 [confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.12]. However, a substantial heterogeneity was present in the analyses (I(2) = 98%; P = 0.00001). When we performed a meta-regression, the effect of Zn intake on serum/plasma Zn status changed depending on the duration of the intervention, the dose of supplementation and the nutritional situation (P ANCOVA = 0.054; <0.001 and <0.007, respectively). After stratifying the sample according to the effect modifiers, the results by duration of intervention showed a positive effect when Zn intake was provided during medium and long periods of time (4-20 weeks and >20 weeks). A positive effect was also seen when doses ranged from 8.1 to 12 mg day(-1) . In all cases, the pooled β showed high evidence of heterogeneity. Zn supplementation increases serum/plasma Zn status in infants, although high evidence of heterogeneity was found. Further standardised research is urgently needed to reach evidence-based conclusions to clarify the role of Zn supplementation upon infant serum/plasma Zn status, particularly in Europe.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 05/2013; 9(3). DOI:10.1111/mcn.12045
  • Source
    • "In the human genome, Zn-binding proteins participate in transcription regulation (Tupler et al., 2001). Zn thus regulates numerous processes involved in cellular metabolism, gene expression, nucleic acid repair, cell replication, tissue repair and growth, and development (Fujii, 1954; Fujii et al., 1955; Prasad et al., 1961; Vallee and Auld, 1993a,b; O'Halloran, 1993; Prasad, 1996; Berg and Shi, 1996; Coleman, 1998; Wood, 2000; Daiyasu et al., 2001; Truong-Tran et al., 2001; Ho and Ames, 2002; Brown et al., 2002). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zinc (Zn) is involved in regulating mental and motor functions of the brain. Previous approaches have determined Zn content in the brain using semi-quantitative histological methods. We present here an alternative approach to map and quantify Zn levels in the synapses from mossy fibers to CA3 region of the hippocampus. Based on the use of nuclear microscopy, which is a combination of imaging and analysis techniques encompassing scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), it enables quantitative elemental mapping down to the parts per million (μg/g dry weight) levels of zinc in rat hippocampal mossy fibers. Our results indicate a laminar-specific Zn concentration of 240±9μM in wet weight level (135±5μg/g dry weight) in the stratum lucidum (SL) compared to 144±6μM in wet weight level (81±3μg/g dry weight) in the stratum pyramidale (SP) and 78±10μM in wet weight level (44±5μg/g dry weight) in the stratum oriens (SO) of the hippocampus. The mossy fibers terminals in CA3 are mainly located in the SL. Hence the Zn concentration is suggested to be within this axonal presynaptic terminal system.
    Neuroscience Research 07/2012; 74(1):17-24. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2012.06.004
Show more


1 Download
Available from