Videotaped cue for urge to drink alcohol.
ABSTRACT The urge to drink alcohol can be robustly and reliably induced via actual exposure to a person's preferred alcoholic beverage. Unfortunately, these exposure paradigms are unwieldy for functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. The goal of this study was to examine whether viewing a personalized videotaped cue could induce alcohol craving. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) individualized cue videotapes can reliably elicit the urge to drink alcohol in alcohol-dependent participants and (2) alcohol drinking histories can predict reactivity to cue.
DSM-IV criteria were used to identify an alcohol-dependent group (ADG). Controls included a light-drinking group and a moderate-drinking group. Urge to drink alcohol was assessed at baseline and after each of five in vivo exposure conditions: water (W), alcohol 1 (A1), mood induction (M), alcohol 2 (A2), and relaxation (R). The entire exposure session was videotaped. Each participant's video footage was digitally edited to produce a 17.5-min cue that was presented to the participant 24 to 72 hr later. Ratings of urge to drink alcohol across the five exposure conditions were compared for both the in vivo and the video exposure sessions.
Fourteen participants (five in the light-drinking group, four in the moderate-drinking group, and five in the ADG) completed both sessions. Participants in each group showed differences between neutral cue exposure (W and R) and alcohol-related cue exposure (A1, M, and A2) in both the in vivo cue session (p < 0.002) and the videotape session (p < 0.02). Post hoc comparisons among the groups to alcohol-related cues established that, in both sessions (p(in vivo) = 0.04; p(videotape) = 0.04), the ADG demonstrated the greatest urge to drink.
Alcohol cue reactivity can be reliably induced and assessed in alcohol-dependent participants via personalized videotapes. History of alcohol consumption is positively correlated with the degree of cue reactivity. This study advances our ability to assess alcohol cue reactivity in the absence of alcohol.
- Journal of Psychopharmacology 07/2014; 28(8):810-812. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol cues can precipitate the desire to drink and cause relapse in recovering alcohol-dependent patients. Serotonin and dopamine may play a role in alcohol cue-induced craving. Acute combined tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), and phenylalanine (Phe) depletion (CMD) in the diet attenuates the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine in the human brain. However, no study of the effects of acute CMD has been previously conducted. Therefore, we investigated whether the attenuation of serotonin and dopamine synthesis changes cue-induced alcohol craving in recently abstinent alcoholics. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 male patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for alcohol dependence were divided into two conditions: (1) monoamine depletion (i.e., consumption of a concentrated amino acid beverage that resulted in a rapid and significant decrease in plasma-free Tyr/Phe/Trp) and (2) balanced condition (i.e., consumption of a similar beverage that contained Tyr/Phe/Trp). The participants were scheduled for two experimental sessions, with an interval of ≥7 days. The cue-induced craving test session was conducted 6h after each amino acid beverage administration. Drinking urge, blood pressure, heart rate, working memory, and attention/psychomotor performance were assessed before and after administration. Compared with the balanced condition, the monoamine depletion condition significantly increased drinking intention/desire and diastolic blood pressure. Cognitive performance was not different between the two conditions. Acute combined serotonin and dopamine depletion may increase drinking intention/desire and diastolic blood pressure without influencing cognitive function.Drug and alcohol dependence 02/2012; 124(3):200-6. · 3.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Laboratory exposure to alcoholic beverage cues has been demonstrated to elicit urges to drink. Less well examined is the possibility that imaginal cues also elicit such urges, providing a model of conditioned effects not dependent on the presence of physical stimuli associated with alcohol. Studies of possible cross-reactivity between smoking and drinking cues are also scarce. To that end, nicotine-dependent nonalcoholic smokers (n = 54) were exposed to social drinking-relevant, and for comparison, neutral and smoking-relevant standardized script-guided imagery. Cravings were measured before and after each imaginal exposure. As hypothesized, the drinking script induced alcohol and cigarette cravings, providing support for both direct and cross-cue reactivity effects. Further validating the social-drinking script, craving reactions were significantly stronger among participants who reported frequent drinking in social situations. Finally, smoking imagery induced both cigarette and alcohol cravings, providing further support for the cross-cue-induced craving phenomenon. Results suggest that the present alcohol script may be a useful tool for eliciting craving responses under laboratory conditions, and provide an additional means for better understanding addiction.Addictive Behaviors 02/2009; · 2.44 Impact Factor