Videotaped Cue for Urge to Drink Alcohol
ABSTRACT The urge to drink alcohol can be robustly and reliably induced via actual exposure to a person's preferred alcoholic beverage. Unfortunately, these exposure paradigms are unwieldy for functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. The goal of this study was to examine whether viewing a personalized videotaped cue could induce alcohol craving. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) individualized cue videotapes can reliably elicit the urge to drink alcohol in alcohol-dependent participants and (2) alcohol drinking histories can predict reactivity to cue.
DSM-IV criteria were used to identify an alcohol-dependent group (ADG). Controls included a light-drinking group and a moderate-drinking group. Urge to drink alcohol was assessed at baseline and after each of five in vivo exposure conditions: water (W), alcohol 1 (A1), mood induction (M), alcohol 2 (A2), and relaxation (R). The entire exposure session was videotaped. Each participant's video footage was digitally edited to produce a 17.5-min cue that was presented to the participant 24 to 72 hr later. Ratings of urge to drink alcohol across the five exposure conditions were compared for both the in vivo and the video exposure sessions.
Fourteen participants (five in the light-drinking group, four in the moderate-drinking group, and five in the ADG) completed both sessions. Participants in each group showed differences between neutral cue exposure (W and R) and alcohol-related cue exposure (A1, M, and A2) in both the in vivo cue session (p < 0.002) and the videotape session (p < 0.02). Post hoc comparisons among the groups to alcohol-related cues established that, in both sessions (p(in vivo) = 0.04; p(videotape) = 0.04), the ADG demonstrated the greatest urge to drink.
Alcohol cue reactivity can be reliably induced and assessed in alcohol-dependent participants via personalized videotapes. History of alcohol consumption is positively correlated with the degree of cue reactivity. This study advances our ability to assess alcohol cue reactivity in the absence of alcohol.
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ABSTRACT: Laboratory exposure to alcoholic beverage cues has been demonstrated to elicit urges to drink. Less well examined is the possibility that imaginal cues also elicit such urges, providing a model of conditioned effects not dependent on the presence of physical stimuli associated with alcohol. Studies of possible cross-reactivity between smoking and drinking cues are also scarce. To that end, nicotine-dependent nonalcoholic smokers (n = 54) were exposed to social drinking-relevant, and for comparison, neutral and smoking-relevant standardized script-guided imagery. Cravings were measured before and after each imaginal exposure. As hypothesized, the drinking script induced alcohol and cigarette cravings, providing support for both direct and cross-cue reactivity effects. Further validating the social-drinking script, craving reactions were significantly stronger among participants who reported frequent drinking in social situations. Finally, smoking imagery induced both cigarette and alcohol cravings, providing further support for the cross-cue-induced craving phenomenon. Results suggest that the present alcohol script may be a useful tool for eliciting craving responses under laboratory conditions, and provide an additional means for better understanding addiction.Addictive Behaviors 02/2009; 34(2-34):164-170. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.10.007 · 2.44 Impact Factor
Journal of Psychopharmacology 07/2014; 28(8):810-812. DOI:10.1177/0269881114538544 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence from alcohol self-administration studies suggests that nicotine replacement therapy may influence subjective and behavioral responses to alcohol. However, its effect on alcohol cue-reactivity is unknown. The present study examined the impact of acutely administered nicotine on subjective responses to alcohol-focused pictorial stimuli. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, nondependent smokers (n = 51) and dependent smokers (n = 45) who socially drink were assigned to either a nicotine (4 mg) or placebo lozenge condition following overnight tobacco abstinence. Following lozenge absorption, participants viewed neutral images followed by alcohol-focused pictures. Craving measures for alcohol and tobacco were completed at baseline, following lozenge absorption, following neutral cues, and following alcohol cues. The presentation of alcohol cues increased alcohol-related craving relative to neutral cues, especially among men, but the administration of nicotine did not influence the magnitude of these effects. Nicotine lozenges were found to decrease intentions to smoke and withdrawal-related craving in dependent but not in nondependent smokers. Finally, the presentation of alcohol cues was found to increase intentions to smoke relative to neutral cues across participants regardless of lozenge condition. Findings suggest that although the presentation of alcohol cues can increase alcohol- and tobacco-related cravings in smokers, such effects do not appear to be affected by acute nicotine administration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).