Xenopus actin-interacting protein 1 (XAip1) enhances cofilin fragmentation of filaments by capping filament ends.
ABSTRACT Xenopus actin-interacting protein 1 (XAip1) is thought to promote fragmentation of actin filaments by cofilin. To examine the mechanism of XAip1, we measured polymer lengths by fluorescence microscopy and the concentration of filament ends with an elongation assay. Cofilin creates ends by severing actin filaments. XAip1 alone does not sever actin filaments or prevent annealing/redistribution of mechanically severed filaments and has no effect on the concentration of ends available for subunit addition. In the presence of XAip1, the apparent filament fragmentation by cofilin is enhanced, but XAip1 reduces rather than increases the concentration of ends capable of adding subunits. Electron microscopy with gold-labeled antibodies showed that a low concentration of XAip1 bound preferentially to one end of the filament. A high concentration of XAip1 bound along the length of the filament. In the presence of gelsolin-actin to cap filament barbed ends, XAip1 does not enhance cofilin activity. We conclude that XAip1 caps the barbed end of filaments severed by cofilin. This capping blocks annealing and depolymerization and allows more extensive severing by cofilin.
Article: An order of magnitude faster AIP1-associated actin disruption than nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex in lamellipodia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mechanism of lamellipod actin turnover is still under debate. To clarify the intracellular behavior of the recently-identified actin disruption mechanism, we examined kinetics of AIP1 using fluorescent single-molecule speckle microscopy. AIP1 is thought to cap cofilin-generated actin barbed ends. Here we demonstrate a reduction in actin-associated AIP1 in lamellipodia of cells overexpressing LIM-kinase. Moreover, actin-associated AIP1 was rapidly abolished by jasplakinolide, which concurrently blocked the F-actin-cofilin interaction. Jasplakinolide also slowed dissociation of AIP1, which is analogous to the effect of this drug on capping protein. These findings provide in vivo evidence of the association of AIP1 with barbed ends generated by cofilin-catalyzed filament disruption. Single-molecule observation found distribution of F-actin-associated AIP1 throughout lamellipodia, and revealed even faster dissociation of AIP1 than capping protein. The estimated overall AIP1-associated actin disruption rate, 1.8 microM/s, was one order of magnitude faster than Arp2/3 complex-catalyzed actin nucleation in lamellipodia. This rate does not suffice the filament severing rate predicted in our previous high frequency filament severing-annealing hypothesis. Our data together with recent biochemical studies imply barbed end-preferred frequent filament disruption. Frequent generation of AIP1-associated barbed ends and subsequent release of AIP1 may be the mechanism that facilitates previously observed ubiquitous actin polymerization throughout lamellipodia.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(3):e4921. · 4.09 Impact Factor