Changing homeodomain residues 2 and 3 of Hoxa1 alters its activity in a cell-type and enhancer dependent manner.
ABSTRACT The second and third amino acid residues of the N-terminal arm of most Hox protein homeodomains are basic (lysine or arginine), whereas they are asparagine and alanine, respectively, in the Hoxa1 homeodomain. Previous reports pinpointed these residues as specificity determinants in the function of Hoxa1 when it is acting as a monomer. However, in vitro data supported that these residues do not influence the target specificity of Hoxa1 in Pbx1a-Hoxa1 heterodimers. Here, we have analysed the transcriptional activity of a Hoxa1(NA-KR) mutant for which the asparagine and alanine residues of the homeodomain have been replaced by lysine and arginine, respectively. Comparison between the wild-type and mutant Hoxa1 reveals that they show distinct activity on the TSEII enhancer of the somatostatin gene, but that they are equally active in the presence of Pbx and Prep cofactors. This therefore corroborates the biochemical evidence having shown that the second and third residues of the homeodomain do not contribute to the DNA binding of Hoxa1-Pbx dimers. However, on the hoxb1 autoregulatory enhancer, Hoxa1 and Hoxa1(NA-KR) may display distinct activity despite the presence of Pbx, in a cell-type dependent manner. Therefore, our data suggest that, depending on the enhancer, these residues may contribute to the functional specificity of Hoxa1 and that this contribution may not be abrogated by the interaction with Pbx.
Article: An ultraconserved Hox-Pbx responsive element resides in the coding sequence of Hoxa2 and is active in rhombomere 4.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Hoxa2 gene has a fundamental role in vertebrate craniofacial and hindbrain patterning. Segmental control of Hoxa2 expression is crucial to its function and several studies have highlighted transcriptional regulatory elements governing its activity in distinct rhombomeres. Here, we identify a putative Hox-Pbx responsive cis-regulatory sequence, which resides in the coding sequence of Hoxa2 and is an important component of Hoxa2 regulation in rhombomere (r) 4. By using cell transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we show that this regulatory sequence is responsive to paralogue group 1 and 2 Hox proteins and to their Pbx co-factors. Importantly, we also show that the Hox-Pbx element cooperates with a previously reported Hoxa2 r4 intronic enhancer and that its integrity is required to drive specific reporter gene expression in r4 upon electroporation in the chick embryo hindbrain. Thus, both intronic as well as exonic regulatory sequences are involved in Hoxa2 segmental regulation in the developing r4. Finally, we found that the Hox-Pbx exonic element is embedded in a larger 205-bp long ultraconserved genomic element (UCE) shared by all vertebrate genomes. In this respect, our data further support the idea that extreme conservation of UCE sequences may be the result of multiple superposed functional and evolutionary constraints.Nucleic Acids Research 07/2008; 36(10):3214-25. · 8.03 Impact Factor