Participation of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases in hydrogen peroxide-induced Ikappa B phosphorylation in human T lymphocytes.
ABSTRACT NF-kappaB is an important transcription factor that has a role in a variety of responses such as inflammation, oncogenesis, apoptosis, and viral replication. Oxidative stress is well known to induce the activation of NF-kappaB. Cells can be exposed to either endogenously produced oxidants or oxidants produced by surrounding cells. In addition, ischemia reperfusion and certain cancer therapies such as chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy are thought to result in oxygen radical production. Because of the important role that NF-kappaB has in multiple responses, it is critical to determine the mechanisms by which oxidative stress induces NF-kappaB activity. We report that the calmodulin antagonist W-7 and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase inhibitors KN-93 and K252a, can block oxidative stress-induced IkappaB phosphorylation in Jurkat T lymphocytes. Furthermore, KN-93 but not KN-92 can block hydrogen peroxide-induced Akt and IKK phosphorylation. In addition, we found that expression of a kinase-dead CaM-KIV construct in two cell lines inhibits IkappaB phosphorylation or degradation and that expression of CaM-KIV augments hydrogen peroxide-induced IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation. Although the CaM kinases appear to be required for this response, increases in intracellular calcium do not appear to be required. These results identify the CaM kinases as potential targets that can be used to minimize NF-kappaB activation in response to oxidative stress.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims: Nuclear factor-erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a critical transcriptional factor that is used in regulating cellular defense against oxidative stress. This study is aimed at investigating new interacting protein partners of Nrf2 using One-strep tag pull-down coupled with LTQ Orbitrap LC/MS/MS, and at examining the impact on Nr2 signaling by the newly identified IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1). Results: Using the One-strep tag pull-down and LTQ Orbitrap LC/MS/MS, we identified IQGAP1 as a new Nrf2 interacting partner. Direct interactions between IQGAP1 and Nrf2 proteins were verified using in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, transcription/translation assays, and in vivo utilizing Nrf2 overexpressing cells. Coexpression of Dsredmono-IQGAP1 and eGFP-Nrf2 increased the stability of eGFP-Nrf2 and enhanced the expression of Nrf2-target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). To confirm the functional role of IQGAP1 on Nrf2, knock-downed IQGAP1 using siIQGAP1 attenuated the expression of endogenous Nrf2, HO-1 proteins, and Nrf2-target genes GSTpi, GCLC, and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1). Furthermore, the stability of Nrf2 was dramatically decreased in IQGAP1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Since IQGAP1 signaling could be mediated by calcium, treating the cells with calcium showed the translocation of IQGAP1/Nrf2 complex into the nucleus, suggesting that IQGAP1 may play a critical role in Nrf2 stability. Interestingly, consistent with calcium signaling for IQGAP1, treating the cells with calcium functionally enhanced Nrf2-mediated antioxidant responsive element-transcription activity and enhanced the expression of the endogenous Nrf2-target gene HO-1. Innovation: In the aggregate, our current study identifies and functionally characterizes a new Nrf2 partner protein IQGAP1, which may contribute to Nrf2's regulation of antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1. Conclusion: IQGAP1 may play a critical role in the stability and transactivation of Nrf2. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 07/2012; · 8.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: TCRγδ(+) T cells play a critical role in protecting the intestinal mucosa against pathogenic infection. In the absence of infection, TCRγδ(+) T cell activation must be continuously regulated by T regulatory cells (Treg) to prevent the development of colitis. However, the activation of intestinal TCRγδ(+) T cells under normal conditions has not been clearly resolved. In order to determine TCRγδ(+) T cell activation in vivo, we designed an NF-κB based reporter system. Using the recombinant lentiviral method, we delivered the NF-κB reporter to isolated TCRγδ(+) T cells, which were then adoptively transferred into normal mice. Our data indicate that the NF-κB activation level in TCRγδ(+) T cells is higher in the intestinal intraepithelial layer than in the lamina propria region. In addition, the surface expression level of lymphocyte activation marker CD69 in TCRγδ(+) T cells is also higher in the intestinal intraepithelial layer and this activation was reduced by Sulfatrim treatment which removes of commensal bacteria. Collectively, our data indicate that the TCRγδ(+) T cell population attached to the intestinal lumen is constitutively activated even by normal commensal bacteria.The Journal of Microbiology 10/2012; 50(5):837-41. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, a.k.a Lnc2) is a member of the lipocalin family and has diverse roles. NGAL can stabilize matrix metalloproteinase-9 from autodegradation. NGAL is considered as a siderocalin that is important in the transport of iron. NGAL expression has also been associated with certain neoplasias and is implicated in the metastasis of breast cancer. In a previous study, we examined whether ectopic NGAL expression would alter the sensitivity of breast epithelial, breast and colorectal cancer cells to the effects of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. While abundant NGAL expression was detected in all the cells infected with a retrovirus encoding NGAL, this expression did not alter the sensitivity of these cells to doxorubicin as compared with empty vector-transduced cells. We were also interested in determining the effects of ectopic NGAL expression on the sensitivity to small-molecule inhibitors targeting key signaling molecules. Ectopic NGAL expression increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to EGFR, Bcl-2 and calmodulin kinase inhibitors as well as the natural plant product berberine. Furthermore, when suboptimal concentrations of certain inhibitors were combined with doxorubicin, a reduction in the doxorubicin IC 50 was frequently observed. An exception was observed when doxorubicin was combined with rapamycin, as doxorubicin suppressed the sensitivity of the NGAL-transduced MCF-7 cells to rapamycin when compared with the empty vector controls. In contrast, changes in the sensitivities of the NGAL-transduced HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line and the breast epithelial MCF-10A cell line were not detected compared with empty vector-transduced cells. Doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox (R) cells were examined in these experiments as a control drug-resistant line; it displayed increased sensitivity to EGFR and Bcl-2 inhibitors compared with empty vector transduced MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that NGAL expression can alter the sensitivity of certain cancer cells to small-molecule inhibitors, suggesting that patients whose tumors exhibit elevated NGAL expression or have become drug-resistant may display altered responses to certain small-molecule inhibitors.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 11/2012; 11(23). · 5.24 Impact Factor