Participation of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases in hydrogen peroxide-induced I kappa B phosphorylation in human T lymphocytes
ABSTRACT NF-kappaB is an important transcription factor that has a role in a variety of responses such as inflammation, oncogenesis, apoptosis, and viral replication. Oxidative stress is well known to induce the activation of NF-kappaB. Cells can be exposed to either endogenously produced oxidants or oxidants produced by surrounding cells. In addition, ischemia reperfusion and certain cancer therapies such as chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy are thought to result in oxygen radical production. Because of the important role that NF-kappaB has in multiple responses, it is critical to determine the mechanisms by which oxidative stress induces NF-kappaB activity. We report that the calmodulin antagonist W-7 and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase inhibitors KN-93 and K252a, can block oxidative stress-induced IkappaB phosphorylation in Jurkat T lymphocytes. Furthermore, KN-93 but not KN-92 can block hydrogen peroxide-induced Akt and IKK phosphorylation. In addition, we found that expression of a kinase-dead CaM-KIV construct in two cell lines inhibits IkappaB phosphorylation or degradation and that expression of CaM-KIV augments hydrogen peroxide-induced IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation. Although the CaM kinases appear to be required for this response, increases in intracellular calcium do not appear to be required. These results identify the CaM kinases as potential targets that can be used to minimize NF-kappaB activation in response to oxidative stress.
- SourceAvailable from: Kristin M StadelmanAdvances in enzyme regulation 11/2009; 50(1):285-307. DOI:10.1016/j.advenzreg.2009.10.016
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ABSTRACT: Considerable evidence suggests that the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) neurons are critically involved in the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wakefulness (W); however, the molecular mechanisms operating within the PPT to regulate these two behavioral states remain relatively unknown. Here we demonstrate that the levels of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and phosphorylated CaMKII expression in the PPT decreased and increased with 'low W with high REM sleep' and 'high W/low REM sleep' periods, respectively. These state-specific expression changes were not observed in the cortex, or in the immediately adjacent medial pontine reticular formation. Next, we demonstrate that CaMKII activity in the PPT is negatively and positively correlated with the 'low W with high REM sleep' and 'high W/low REM sleep' periods, respectively. These differences in correlations were not seen in the medial pontine reticular formation CaMKII activity. Finally, we demonstrate that with increased PPT CaMKII activity observed during high W/low REM sleep, there were marked shifts in the expression of genes that are involved in components of various signal transduction pathways. Collectively, these results for the first time suggest that the increased CaMKII activity within PPT neurons is associated with increased W at the expense of REM sleep, and this process is accomplished through the activation of a specific gene expression profile.Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2009; 112(1):271-81. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06452.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increases protein tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Two main proteins, with an apparent molecular weight of 44 and 42kDa, were phosphorylated after hydrogen peroxide stimulation of the human gingival fibroblasts. Further analysis identified these two proteins as ERK1/2. Maximum phosphorylation was detected at 10min post-H(2)O(2) treatment. Pretreatment with an MEK inhibitor, PD98059, inhibited H(2)O(2)-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with H(2)O(2) also induced phosphorylation of protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha). Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, blocked ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by H(2)O(2). In addition, H(2)O(2)-induced cell death was prevented by PD98059, SB203580, and calphostin C, which are MEK, p38 and PKC inhibitors, respectively. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) leads to the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 in a PKC-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that the MAPK signaling pathway plays an active role in mediating the H(2)O(2)-induced decrease in HGF cell viability and ATP depletion.Toxicology in Vitro 09/2009; 24(1):319-26. DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2009.08.007 · 3.21 Impact Factor