Cloning, expression and genomic structure of human LMX1A, and variant screening in Pima Indians
ABSTRACT LIM-homeodomain containing protein LMX1A activates transcription of the insulin gene. The human LMX1A gene maps to 1q22-q23, a region identified as a putative type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) locus in several different populations. We analyzed LMX1A as a positional and biological candidate gene for T2DM in the Pima Indians, in whom a linkage of T2DM to 1q21-q23 has been previously reported. In the present study, we describe the cloning, expression and genomic organization of the LMX1A gene, which is composed of 11 exons spanning approximately 151 kb. In addition to a transcript encoding the predicted full-length protein of 382 amino acids, we identified two truncated cDNA forms produced via additional transcription start sites and alternative splicing. We identified seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the LMX1A locus and determined allele frequency distributions in 150 diabetic and 150 unaffected Pimas. We did not find evidence for association of any LMX1A SNPs with T2DM and conclude that LMX1A does not contribute significantly to T2DM etiology in Pima Indians.
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ABSTRACT: Advancement in the molecular tools used in toxicology has provided immense information about the cellular and global structure and function of toxicant-responsive genes. Now, it has become possible to assess the functional activity of genes and proteins involved in various toxicological pathways, which were not possible with the conventional methods. Many genes are known to have a greater influence on the susceptibility to environmental agents than others; therefore, identification and characterization of polymorphism in such genes for the determination of early, late, or no response of an individual for the toxicant-induced diseases has also become mandatory. Toxicogenomics, a newly born discipline of toxicology, comprises of two major facets, one, how various genes in the genome respond to environmental toxicants and stressors and second, how toxicants modify the function and expression of specific genes in the genome. Toxicogenomics play an important role in the identification and characterization of molecular biomarkers to predict cellular toxicity and to determine the efficacy and exposure in the toxicity trials at an early stage. Genome and proteome-wide expression profiles in combination with conventional toxicology are being used to classify compounds, predict the mechanism of toxicity of newer compounds and determine the susceptibility of an individual for the toxic responses. Single-nucleotide polymorphism in toxicant-responsive genes is being used to obtain basic information of the genetic variation and its role in the functional protein expression. Various national and international government and private organizations have launched several programs on gene-environment interactions. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India, has also launched a program on ′toxicogenomics of genetic polymorphism in Indian population to industrial chemicals for development of biomarkers′ to provide better ventures and facilities to researchers in order to understand the environment-genome interactions. In this review, the contribution of genomics, proteomics, and SNPs in toxicology along with its current status in India has been discussedIndian Journal of Human Genetics 01/2005; DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.16804
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ABSTRACT: We have identified a region on chromosome 1q21-q24 that was significantly linked to type 2 diabetes in multiplex families of Northern European ancestry and also in Pima Indians, Amish families, and families from France and England. We sought to narrow and map this locus using a combination of linkage and association approaches by typing microsatellite markers at 1.2 and 0.5 cM densities, respectively, over a region of 37 cM (23.5 Mb). We tested linkage by parametric and nonparametric approaches and association using both case-control and family-based methods. In the 40 multiplex families that provided the previous evidence for linkage, the highest parametric, recessive logarithm of odds (LOD) score was 5.29 at marker D1S484 (168.5 cM, 157.5 Mb) without heterogeneity. Nonparametric linkage (NPL) statistics (P = 0.00009), SimWalk2 Statistic A (P = 0.0002), and sib-pair analyses (maximum likelihood score = 6.07) all mapped to the same location. The one LOD CI was narrowed to 156.8-158.9 Mb. Under recessive, two-point linkage analysis, adjacent markers D1S2675 (171.5 cM, 158.9 Mb) and D1S1679 (172 cM, 159.1 Mb) showed LOD scores >3.0. Nonparametric analyses revealed a second linkage peak at 180 cM near marker D1S1158 (163.3 Mb, NPL score 3.88, P = 0.0001), which was also supported by case-control (marker D1S194, 178 cM, 162.1 Mb; P = 0.003) and family-based (marker ATA38A05, 179 cM, 162.5 Mb; P = 0.002) association studies. We propose that the replicated linkage findings actually encompass at least two closely spaced regions, with a second susceptibility region located telomeric at 162.5-164.7 Mb.Diabetes 02/2004; 53(2):492-9. DOI:10.2337/diabetes.53.2.492 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endosulfine alpha (ENSA) is an endogenous ligand of the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) that can stimulate insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. Originally, an intronless gene coding for this protein was assigned to Chr. 14q, but more recent information available in public databases indicated the position of ENSA on 1q21. We show here that the 1q21 locus represents the expressed gene consisting of 6 exons, whereas the locus on Chr. 14q is apparently a pseudogene. The ENSA gene on 1q21 produces several alternatively spliced transcripts, and is located within a region linked with T2DM in diverse populations including the Pima Indians. We analyzed ENSA in this Native American population and identified seven variants, which fall into three linkage disequilibrium groups. Analysis of representative markers in over 1200 Pima Indians did not reveal any significant association with T2DM, or with differences in insulin action and insulin secretion in a subset of approximately 270 non-diabetic subjects. In addition, we did not detect any significant correlation of skeletal muscle ENSA transcript levels with differences in insulin action in 49 non-diabetic subjects. We conclude that sequence alterations in ENSA are an unlikely cause for the linkage of T2DM with 1q21-q23 in the Pima Indians.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2004; 81(1):16-21. · 2.83 Impact Factor