Cisplatin up-regulates the adenosine A(1) receptor in the rat kidney.
ABSTRACT Cisplatin, a widely used anticancer drug, produces significant oto- and nephrotoxicity. Previous data from our laboratory, using cultured cell lines, indicated that cisplatin increases the expression of the adenosine A(1) receptor subtype through generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B). Since the adenosine A(1) receptor plays an important role in normal renal physiology, this study was performed to determine whether cisplatin modulates adenosine A(1) receptor expression in vivo and whether these receptors play a role in the nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, treated with cisplatin (8 mg/kg), developed nephrotoxicity within 3 days, as demonstrated by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Cisplatin also produced a significant increase in malondialdehyde, apoptosis and necrosis in the kidney. The above changes were associated with a time-dependent increase in the expression of adenosine A(1) receptor, as determined by radioligand binding assays, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, and an increase in adenosine A(1) receptor transcripts. Administration of selective and nonselective antagonists of the adenosine A(1) receptor produced either no change or exacerbated the nephrotoxicity produced by cisplatin. These data indicate that cisplatin can regulate the adenosine A(1) receptor in the kidney and suggest a cytoprotective role of this receptor subtype against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.