Article

Utilization of Cytokeratins 7 and 20 Does Not Differentiate between Barrett’s Esophagus and Gastric Cardiac Intestinal Metaplasia

Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.36). 06/2002; 15(6):611-6. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.3880574
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Long segment Barrett's esophagus (LSBE) is a recognized risk factor for the development of esophageal dysplasia and carcinoma. However, the risk of dysplasia arising within intestinal metaplasia below a normal-appearing Z-line (i.e., in native cardiac mucosa) is unknown. Regular endoscopic surveillance is required in patients with LSBE and is frequently performed in short segment BE (SSBE), but the need for surveillance in cardiac intestinal metaplasia (CIM) is unknown. Unfortunately IM arising in SSBE and immediately below a normal Z-line can be indistinguishable histologically on H&E stains. Previous reports suggest that the appearance of superficial CK20 immunohistochemical staining accompanied by intermediate and deep CK7 positivity is characteristic of BE, whereas CIM specimens show superficial and deep CK20 positivity and weak to absent CK7 staining. We hypothesized that CK7/20 immunostaining of metaplastic biopsies from the esophagus and stomach would allow complete differentiation of these two entities when correlated with the endoscopic appearance. We undertook an evaluation of gastric and esophageal specimens to determine whether these characteristics were valid. Cases of both BE (long and short segment) and CIM, as well as cases of gastric cardiac biopsies lacking IM, were evaluated for CK7 and CK20 and correlated with the endoscopic appearance. We observed that, although the "Barrett's" pattern of CK7/20 was maintained for many cases of BE, the sensitivity and specificity were only moderate (65% and 56%, respectively). The pattern of staining for the CIM was variable, i.e., some cases showed a CK7/20 Barrett's pattern despite a normal appearance at endoscopy. The differences between this and previous studies may be due to inaccurate visualization of SSBE on endoscopy, the development of very early SSBE cases, inter-observer variability, fixation differences, or antibody differences. Whatever the cause of the differences, if results between laboratories are not comparable, CK7/20 immunostaining cannot be used to differentiate reliably between IM present in biopsy specimens taken from above versus below the Z-line. However, further studies should be performed to determine whether the presence or absence of a Barrett's pattern of CK7/20 immunostaining could predict progression to dysplasia or carcinoma.

Full-text

Available from: Cathy Streutker, Apr 04, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
83 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of the present correlative immunohistochemical study was to assess the utility of cytokeratin (CK7 and CK20) expression in the diagnosis of short-segment Barrett esophagus, particularly its efficacy in differentiating Barrett mucosa from intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia and corpus. Methods Two groups of endoscopic biopsy specimens were examined, including 20 endoscopic biopsy specimens of short-segment Barrett esophagus (Group A) and equal number exhibiting Helicobacter pylori associated intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia and corpus (Group B). All were investigated by immunohistochemistry using the standard ABC method for CK7 and CK20 expression. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis of Barrett CK7/20 and gastric CK7/20 patterns between the groups. Results The anticipated pattern of reactivity in Barrett mucosa (CK7: strong diffuse positivity in superficial and deep glands; CK20: positivity in surface epithelium and superficial glands) was seen in 2 cases of Group A specimens. The expected gastric pattern (CK7: patchy immunostaining with variable involvement of deep glands; CK20: patchy immunostaining of superficial and deep glands in incomplete intestinal metaplasia / absence of CK7 immunoreactivity with strong CK20 staining in superficial and deep glands in complete intestinal metaplasia) was seen in 8 cases of Group B specimens. The respective sensitivity and false-negativity values of CK7/20 staining for Barrett pattern in Group A were 10% and 90%, respectively. These values for gastric pattern in Group B were 40% and 60%, respectively. The specificity and false-positivity values of both patterns were same (100% and 0%, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference for Barrett pattern between the two groups (P = 0.487), while the observation of gastric pattern was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (P = 0.02). Conclusions We concluded that these hypothesized and recently applied diagnostic criteria involving CK7 and CK20 immunoreactivity are not reliable in distinguishing short-segment Barrett esophagus from intestinal metaplasia as seen in gastric cardia and corpus.
    BMC Clinical Pathology 01/2004; 3(1):5. DOI:10.1186/1472-6890-3-5
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Predisposing factors include achlorhydria, Helicobacter pylori infection, oxyntic atrophy and TFF2-expressing metaplasia. In parietal cells, apical potassium channels comprising the KCNQ1 alpha subunit and the KCNE2 beta subunit provide a K(+) efflux current to facilitate gastric acid secretion by the apical H(+)K(+)ATPase. Accordingly, genetic deletion of murine Kcnq1 or Kcne2 impairs gastric acid secretion. Other evidence has suggested a role for KCNE2 in human gastric cancer cell proliferation, independent of its role in gastric acidification. Here, we demonstrate that 1-year-old Kcne2(-/-) mice in a pathogen-free environment all exhibit a severe gastric preneoplastic phenotype comprising gastritis cystica profunda, 6-fold increased stomach mass, increased Ki67 and nuclear Cyclin D1 expression, and TFF2- and cytokeratin 7-expressing metaplasia. Some Kcne2(-/-) mice also exhibited pyloric polypoid adenomas extending into the duodenum, and neoplastic invasion of thin walled vessels in the sub-mucosa. Finally, analysis of human gastric cancer tissue indicated reduced parietal cell KCNE2 expression. Together with previous findings, the results suggest KCNE2 disruption as a possible risk factor for gastric neoplasia.
    PLoS ONE 07/2010; 5(7):e11451. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0011451 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the roles of mucin histochemistry, cytokeratin 7/20 (CK7/20) immunoreactivity, clinical characteristics and endoscopy to distinguish short-segment Barrett's esophageal (SSBE) from cardiac intestinal metaplasia (CIM). High iron diamine/Alcian blue (HID/AB) mucin-histochemical staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to classify intestinal metaplasia (IM) and to determine CK7/20 immunoreactivity pattern in SSBE and CIM, respectively, and these results were compared with endoscopical diagnosis and the positive rate of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and H pylori infection. Long-segment Barrett's esophageal and IM of gastric antrum were designed as control. The prevalence of type III IM was significantly higher in SSBE than in CIM (63.33% vs 23.08%, P< 0.005). The CK7/20 immunoreactivity in SSBE showed mainly Barrett's pattern (76.66%), and the GERD symptoms in most cases which showed Barrett's pattern were positive, whereas H pylori infection was negative. However, the CK7/20 immunoreactivity in CIM was gastric pattern preponderantly (61.54%), but there were 23.08% cases that showed Barrett's pattern. H pylori infection in all cases which showed gastric pattern was significantly higher than those which showed Barrett's pattern (63.83% vs 19.30%, P< 0.005), whereas the GERD symptoms in gastric pattern were significantly lower than that in Barrett's pattern (21.28% vs 85.96%, P< 0.005). Distinction of SSBE from CIM should not be based on a single method; however, the combination of clinical characteristics, histology, mucin histochemistry, CK7/20 immunoreactivity, and endoscopic biopsy should be applied. Type III IM, presence of GERD symptoms, and Barrett's CK7/20 immunoreactivity pattern may support the diagnosis of SSBE, whereas non-type III IM, positive H pylori infection, and gastric CK7/20 immunoreactivity pattern may imply CIM.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2005; 11(40):6360-5. · 2.43 Impact Factor