In vivo cell lineage analysis during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats using retroviral-mediated gene transfer: evidence for dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT Feeding adult rats with a diet containing 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) results in suppression of hepatocyte proliferation and stimulation of oval cell proliferation. Although oval cells may be facultative liver stem cells, the actual relationship between oval cells and liver cancer has not been clearly established in vivo. Our goal was to label hepatic cells in vivo using retroviral vectors and follow their fate during the early steps of chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Oval cell proliferation was induced by continuous feeding with a carcinogenic diet containing 2-AAF. We used two different strategies to genetically label hepatic cells: (a) labeling of proliferating cells in rats fed 2-AAF by injecting recombinant retroviral vectors containing the beta-galactosidase gene either in a peripheral vein or in the common bile duct at the peak of oval cell proliferation and (b) prelabeling of hepatocytes by intravenously injecting recombinant vectors 1 day after partial hepatectomy and 1 week before subsequent administration of 2-AAF. Using the first strategy, transgene expression occurred in both oval cells and hepatocytes. Using the second strategy, we could selectively label, and hence study the fate of, differentiated hepatocytes. In the latter case, we observed clusters of beta-galactosidase-positive hepatocytes, some of them also expressing preneoplastic markers such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as well as the placental form of glutathione-S-transferase. These results demonstrate that preneoplastic foci can originate from mature hepatocytes and are consistent with the hypothesis that dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes may occur during the course of carcinogenic regimen.
- SourceAvailable from: Miltu Kumar Ghosh02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0023-2
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ABSTRACT: The molecular events during non-genotoxic carcinogenesis and their temporal order are poorly understood but thought to include long-lasting perturbations of gene expression. Here, we have investigated the temporal sequence of molecular and pathological perturbations at early stages of phenobarbital-mediated liver tumor promotion in vivo. Molecular profiling (mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation & proteins) of mouse liver during 13 weeks of phenobarbital treatment revealed progressive increases in hepatic expression of long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs originating from the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted gene cluster, a locus that has recently been associated with stem cell pluripotency in mice and various neoplasms in humans. Phenobarbital-induction of the Dlk1-Dio3 cluster non-coding RNA Meg3 was localised to glutamine synthetase positive hypertrophic perivenous hepatocytes suggesting a role for β-catenin signaling in the dysregulation of Dlk1-Dio3 non-coding RNAs. The carcinogenic relevance of Dlk1-Dio3 locus non-coding RNA induction was further supported by in vivo genetic dependence on Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) and β-catenin pathways. Our data identify Dlk1-Dio3 non-coding RNAs as novel candidate early biomarkers for mouse liver tumor promotion and provide new opportunities for assessing the carcinogenic potential of novel compounds.Toxicological Sciences 10/2012; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The liver has 3 cell lineages able to proliferate after a hepatic injury: the mature hepatocyte, the ductular “bipolar” progenitor cell termed “oval cell” and the putative periductular stem cell. Hepatocytes can only produce other hepatocytes whereas ductular progenitor cells are considerate bipolar since they can give rise to biliary cells or hepatocytes. Periductular stem cells are rare in the liver, have a very long proliferation potential and may be multipotent, being this aspect still under investigation. They originate in the bone marrow since their progeny express genetic markers of donor hematopoietic cells after bone marrow transplantation. Since the liver is the hematopoietic organ of the fetus, it is possible that hematopoietic stem cells may reside in the liver of the adult. This assumption is proved by the finding that oval cells express hematopoietic markers like CD34, CD45, CD 109, Thy-1, c-kit, and others, which are also expressed by bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (BMSCs). Few and discordant studies have evaluated the role of BMSC in hepatocarcinogenesis so far and further studies in vitro and in vivo are warranted in order to definitively clarify such an issue.Hepatobiliary surgery and nutrition. 08/2014;