Transgenic mice expressing human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (HuCETPTg mice) were crossed with apolipoprotein CI-knocked out (apoCI-KO) mice. Although total cholesterol levels tended to be reduced as the result of CETP expression in HuCETPTg heterozygotes compared with C57BL6 control mice (-13%, not significant), a more pronounced decrease (-28%, p < 0.05) was observed when human CETP was expressed in an apoCI-deficient background (HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice). Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed a significant, 6.1-fold rise (p < 0.05) in the cholesteryl ester content of very low density lipoproteins in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice compared with control mice, whereas the 2.7-fold increase in HuCETPTg mice did not reach the significance level in these experiments. Approximately 50% decreases in the cholesteryl ester content and cholesteryl ester to triglyceride ratio of high density lipoproteins (HDL) were observed in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice compared with controls (p < 0.05 in both cases), with intermediate -20% changes in HuCETPTg mice. The cholesteryl ester depletion of HDL was accompanied with a significant reduction in their mean apparent diameter (8.68 +/- 0.04 nm in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice versus 8.83 +/- 0.02 nm in control mice; p < 0.05), again with intermediate values in HuCETPTg mice (8.77 +/- 0.04 nm). In vitro purified apoCI was able to inhibit cholesteryl ester exchange when added to either total plasma or reconstituted HDL-free mixtures, and coincidently, the specific activity of CETP was significantly increased in the apoCI-deficient state (173 +/- 75 pmol/microg/h in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice versus 72 +/- 19 pmol/microg/h in HuCETPTg, p < 0.05). Finally, HDL from apoCI-KO mice were shown to interact more readily with purified CETP than control HDL that differ only by their apoCI content. Overall, the present observations provide direct support for a potent specific inhibition of CETP by plasma apoCI in vivo.
"Furthermore, the presence of the HpaI polymorphism in humans is associated with increased triglyceride levels  . Experimental studies have shown that ApoC-I modulates lipid metabolism by increasing the production rate of hepatic VLDLs , inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity   , interference with the apoE-mediated uptake of VLDLs  , and inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)  . ApoC-I is primarily expressed in the liver  and secreted into plasma as a 6.6 kDa protein where 60–70% is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and 30–40% associated with VLDL under fasting conditions . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Experimental studies in animals suggest that apolipoprotein (apo) C-I is an important regulator of triglycerides in fasting and postprandial conditions and associated with carotid atherosclerosis.
Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 81 subjects, aged 56–80 years recruited from a population health survey. The participants underwent a fat tolerance test (1 g fat per Kg body weight) and carotid atherosclerosis was determined by ultrasound examination. VLDL particles, Sf 20–400, were isolated and their lipid composition and apoC-I content determined.
Results. The carotid plaque area increased linearly with the number of apoC-I molecules per VLDL particles (P = 0.048) under fasting conditions. Fasting triglycerides increased across tertiles of apoC-I per VLDL particle in analyses adjusted for apoC-II and -C-III, apoE genotype and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0.011). The relation between apoC-I in VLDL and serum triglycerides was conveyed by triglyceride enrichment of VLDL particles (P for trend <0.001. The amount of apoC-I molecules per VLDL was correlated with the total (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001) and incremental (r = 0.35, P < 0.001) area under the postprandial triglyceride curve.
Conclusions. Our findings support the concept that the content of apoC-I per VLDL particle is an important regulator of triglyceride metabolism in the fasting and postprandial state and associated with carotid athrosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is atherosclerosis. Several genes that affect atherosclerosis development have been identified by the use of genetically modified mice (i.e. transgenic and knock-out mouse models). Many of these genes exert their role in atherosclerosis development as a result of effects on lipoprotein metabolism and inflammation. Transgenic mouse models have also been proven to be suitable for evaluating the mechanisms underlying the anti-atherosclerotic action of experimental drugs aimed to reduce atherogenic lipoprotein levels. However, thus far no suitable animal model was present to evaluate the mechanism of action of anti-atherosclerotic effect of HDL-raising therapeutic strategies. In this thesis, we further explored the role of apolipoprotein CI (apoCI) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we developed a mouse model that will be suitable for testing potential high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) raising therapies as a novel strategy to treat CVD.
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