Apolipoprotein CI deficiency markedly augments plasma lipoprotein changes mediated by human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in CETP transgenic/ApoCI-knocked out mice.
ABSTRACT Transgenic mice expressing human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (HuCETPTg mice) were crossed with apolipoprotein CI-knocked out (apoCI-KO) mice. Although total cholesterol levels tended to be reduced as the result of CETP expression in HuCETPTg heterozygotes compared with C57BL6 control mice (-13%, not significant), a more pronounced decrease (-28%, p < 0.05) was observed when human CETP was expressed in an apoCI-deficient background (HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice). Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed a significant, 6.1-fold rise (p < 0.05) in the cholesteryl ester content of very low density lipoproteins in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice compared with control mice, whereas the 2.7-fold increase in HuCETPTg mice did not reach the significance level in these experiments. Approximately 50% decreases in the cholesteryl ester content and cholesteryl ester to triglyceride ratio of high density lipoproteins (HDL) were observed in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice compared with controls (p < 0.05 in both cases), with intermediate -20% changes in HuCETPTg mice. The cholesteryl ester depletion of HDL was accompanied with a significant reduction in their mean apparent diameter (8.68 +/- 0.04 nm in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice versus 8.83 +/- 0.02 nm in control mice; p < 0.05), again with intermediate values in HuCETPTg mice (8.77 +/- 0.04 nm). In vitro purified apoCI was able to inhibit cholesteryl ester exchange when added to either total plasma or reconstituted HDL-free mixtures, and coincidently, the specific activity of CETP was significantly increased in the apoCI-deficient state (173 +/- 75 pmol/microg/h in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice versus 72 +/- 19 pmol/microg/h in HuCETPTg, p < 0.05). Finally, HDL from apoCI-KO mice were shown to interact more readily with purified CETP than control HDL that differ only by their apoCI content. Overall, the present observations provide direct support for a potent specific inhibition of CETP by plasma apoCI in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Experimental studies in animals suggest that apolipoprotein (apo) C-I is an important regulator of triglycerides in fasting and postprandial conditions and associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 81 subjects, aged 56-80 years recruited from a population health survey. The participants underwent a fat tolerance test (1 g fat per Kg body weight) and carotid atherosclerosis was determined by ultrasound examination. VLDL particles, Sf 20-400, were isolated and their lipid composition and apoC-I content determined. Results. The carotid plaque area increased linearly with the number of apoC-I molecules per VLDL particles (P = 0.048) under fasting conditions. Fasting triglycerides increased across tertiles of apoC-I per VLDL particle in analyses adjusted for apoC-II and -C-III, apoE genotype and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0.011). The relation between apoC-I in VLDL and serum triglycerides was conveyed by triglyceride enrichment of VLDL particles (P for trend <0.001. The amount of apoC-I molecules per VLDL was correlated with the total (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001) and incremental (r = 0.35, P < 0.001) area under the postprandial triglyceride curve. Conclusions. Our findings support the concept that the content of apoC-I per VLDL particle is an important regulator of triglyceride metabolism in the fasting and postprandial state and associated with carotid athrosclerosis.Journal of lipids. 01/2011; 2011:271062.
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ABSTRACT: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is important clinically and is the current target for new drug development. Its structure and mechanism of action has not been well understood. We have combined current new structural and functional methods to compare with relevant prior data. These analyses have led us to propose several steps in CETP's function at the molecular level, in the context of its interactions with lipoproteins, e.g., sensing, penetration, docking, selectivity, ternary complex formation, lipid transfer, and HDL dissociation. These new molecular insights improve our understanding of CETP's mechanisms of action.The Journal of Lipid Research 06/2012; 53(8):1451-8. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes the cholesterol enrichment of apoB-containing lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL) at the expense of HDL. Recent studies demonstrated that apoC1 is a potent CETP inhibitor in plasma of healthy, normolipidemic subjects. Our goal was to establish whether the modulation of CETP activity by apoC1 is influenced by dyslipidemia in patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD). In the total CAD population studied (n = 240), apoC1 levels correlated negatively with CETP activity, independently of apoE-epsilon, CETP-Taq1B, and apoC1-Hpa1 genotypes. In multivariate analysis, the negative relationship was observed only in normolipidemic patients, not in those with hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or combined hyperlipidemia. In the normolipidemic subjects, apoC1 levels were positively associated with higher HDL- to LDL-cholesterol ratio (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). It is concluded that apoC1 as a CETP inhibitor no longer operates on cholesterol redistribution in high-risk patients with dyslipidemia, probably due to increasing amounts of VLDL-bound apoC1, which is inactive as a CETP inhibitor. Patients with dyslipidemia could experience major benefits from treatment with pharmacological CETP inhibitors, which might compensate for blunted endogenous inhibition.The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2012; 53(6):1200-9. · 4.39 Impact Factor