Apolipoprotein CI deficiency markedly augments plasma lipoprotein changes mediated by human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in CETP transgenic/ApoCI-knocked out mice.
ABSTRACT Transgenic mice expressing human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (HuCETPTg mice) were crossed with apolipoprotein CI-knocked out (apoCI-KO) mice. Although total cholesterol levels tended to be reduced as the result of CETP expression in HuCETPTg heterozygotes compared with C57BL6 control mice (-13%, not significant), a more pronounced decrease (-28%, p < 0.05) was observed when human CETP was expressed in an apoCI-deficient background (HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice). Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed a significant, 6.1-fold rise (p < 0.05) in the cholesteryl ester content of very low density lipoproteins in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice compared with control mice, whereas the 2.7-fold increase in HuCETPTg mice did not reach the significance level in these experiments. Approximately 50% decreases in the cholesteryl ester content and cholesteryl ester to triglyceride ratio of high density lipoproteins (HDL) were observed in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice compared with controls (p < 0.05 in both cases), with intermediate -20% changes in HuCETPTg mice. The cholesteryl ester depletion of HDL was accompanied with a significant reduction in their mean apparent diameter (8.68 +/- 0.04 nm in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice versus 8.83 +/- 0.02 nm in control mice; p < 0.05), again with intermediate values in HuCETPTg mice (8.77 +/- 0.04 nm). In vitro purified apoCI was able to inhibit cholesteryl ester exchange when added to either total plasma or reconstituted HDL-free mixtures, and coincidently, the specific activity of CETP was significantly increased in the apoCI-deficient state (173 +/- 75 pmol/microg/h in HuCETPTg/apoCI-KO mice versus 72 +/- 19 pmol/microg/h in HuCETPTg, p < 0.05). Finally, HDL from apoCI-KO mice were shown to interact more readily with purified CETP than control HDL that differ only by their apoCI content. Overall, the present observations provide direct support for a potent specific inhibition of CETP by plasma apoCI in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Mice that overexpress human apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) homozygously (APOC1(+/+) mice) are protected against obesity and show cutaneous abnormalities. Although these effects can result from our previous observation that apoC-I inhibits FFA generation by LPL, we have also found that apoC-I impairs the uptake of a FFA analog in adipose tissue. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that apoC-I interferes with cellular FFA uptake independent of LPL activity. The cutaneous abnormalities of APOC1(+/+) mice were not affected after transplantation to wild-type mice, indicating that locally produced apoC-I prevents lipid entry into the skin. Subsequent in vitro studies with apoC-I-deficient versus wild-type macrophages revealed that apoC-I reduced the cell association and subsequent esterification of [(3)H]oleic acid by approximately 35% (P < 0.05). We speculated that apoC-I binds FFA extracellularly, thereby preventing cell association of FFA. We showed that apoC-I was indeed able to mediate the binding of oleic acid to otherwise protein-free VLDL-like emulsion particles involving electrostatic interaction. We conclude that apoC-I binds FFA in the circulation, thereby reducing the availability of FFA for uptake by cells. This mechanism can serve as an additional mechanism behind the resistance to obesity and the cutaneous abnormalities of APOC1(+/+) mice.The Journal of Lipid Research 07/2007; 48(6):1353-61. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Experimental studies in animals suggest that apolipoprotein (apo) C-I is an important regulator of triglycerides in fasting and postprandial conditions and associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 81 subjects, aged 56-80 years recruited from a population health survey. The participants underwent a fat tolerance test (1 g fat per Kg body weight) and carotid atherosclerosis was determined by ultrasound examination. VLDL particles, Sf 20-400, were isolated and their lipid composition and apoC-I content determined. Results. The carotid plaque area increased linearly with the number of apoC-I molecules per VLDL particles (P = 0.048) under fasting conditions. Fasting triglycerides increased across tertiles of apoC-I per VLDL particle in analyses adjusted for apoC-II and -C-III, apoE genotype and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0.011). The relation between apoC-I in VLDL and serum triglycerides was conveyed by triglyceride enrichment of VLDL particles (P for trend <0.001. The amount of apoC-I molecules per VLDL was correlated with the total (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001) and incremental (r = 0.35, P < 0.001) area under the postprandial triglyceride curve. Conclusions. Our findings support the concept that the content of apoC-I per VLDL particle is an important regulator of triglyceride metabolism in the fasting and postprandial state and associated with carotid athrosclerosis.Journal of lipids. 01/2011; 2011:271062.
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ABSTRACT: Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes the cholesterol enrichment of apoB-containing lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL) at the expense of HDL. Recent studies demonstrated that apoC1 is a potent CETP inhibitor in plasma of healthy, normolipidemic subjects. Our goal was to establish whether the modulation of CETP activity by apoC1 is influenced by dyslipidemia in patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD). In the total CAD population studied (n = 240), apoC1 levels correlated negatively with CETP activity, independently of apoE-epsilon, CETP-Taq1B, and apoC1-Hpa1 genotypes. In multivariate analysis, the negative relationship was observed only in normolipidemic patients, not in those with hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or combined hyperlipidemia. In the normolipidemic subjects, apoC1 levels were positively associated with higher HDL- to LDL-cholesterol ratio (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). It is concluded that apoC1 as a CETP inhibitor no longer operates on cholesterol redistribution in high-risk patients with dyslipidemia, probably due to increasing amounts of VLDL-bound apoC1, which is inactive as a CETP inhibitor. Patients with dyslipidemia could experience major benefits from treatment with pharmacological CETP inhibitors, which might compensate for blunted endogenous inhibition.The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2012; 53(6):1200-9. · 4.39 Impact Factor