Sequence analysis of Potato leafroll virus isolates reveals genetic stability, major evolutionary events and differential selection pressure between overlapping reading frame products.
ABSTRACT In order to investigate the genetic diversity of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), seven new complete genomic sequences of isolates collected worldwide were compared with the five sequences available in GenBank. Then, a restricted polymorphic region of the genome was chosen to further analyse new sequences. The sequences of PLRV open reading frames (ORFs) 3 and 4 were also compared with those of two other poleroviruses and the non-synonymous to synonymous substitution ratio distribution was analysed in overlapping and non-overlapping regions of the genome using maximum-likelihood models. Results confirmed that PLRV sequences from around the world are very closely related and showed that the region encoding protein P0 allowed the detection of three groups of isolates. When compared to other poleroviruses, PLRV was the most conserved in both ORFs 3 and 4. However, the results suggest that important events, such as deletion, mutation at a stop codon and intraspecific homologous recombination events, have occurred during the evolution of PLRV. Finally, it was shown that the translation products of ORFs 0 and 3 are significantly more conserved than those of the overlapping ORFs 1 and 4, respectively. All together, the results allow the proposal of new hypotheses to explain the apparent genetic stability of PLRV and its evolution.
- SourceAvailable from: Fei Zhao[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) genome contains four ORFs, S (surface), P (polymerase), C (core) and X. S is completely overlapped by P and as a consequence the overlapping region is subject to distinctive evolutionary constraints compared to the remainder of the genome. Specifically, a non-synonymous substitution in one coding frame may produce a synonymous substitution in the alternative frame, suggesting a possible conflict between requirements for diversifying and purifying forces. To examine how these contrasting requirements are balanced within this region, we investigated the relationship amongst positive selection sites, conserved regions, epitopes and elements of protein structure to consider how HBV balances the contrasting evolutionary pressures. METHODOLOGYRESULTS: 323 HBV genotype D genome sequences were collected and analyzed to identify sites under positive selection and highly conserved regions. Epitopes sequences were retrieved from previously published experimental studies stored in the Immune Epitope Database. Predicted secondary structures were used to investigate the association between structure and conservation. Entropy was used as a measure of conservation and bivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between positive selection/conserved sites and epitope/secondary structure regions. Our results indicate: (i) conservation in S is primarily dictated by α-helix elements in the protein structure, (ii) variable residues are mainly located in PreS, the major hydrophilic region (MHR) and the C-terminus, (iii) epitopes in S, which are directly targeted by the host immune system, are significantly associated with sites under positive selection. CONCLUSIONS: The highly variable spacer domain in P, which corresponds to PreS in S, appears to act as a harbor for the accumulation of mutations that can provide flexibility for conformational changes and responding to immune pressure.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60098. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is a destructive virus of potatoes and responsible for high yield losses wherever potatoes are grown. In this study, DNA fragments containing ORF0 from each of nine PLRV isolates was sequenced. Sequence analysis data using 36 isolates from 12 different countries including 14 Iranian isolates showed that the identities of ORF0 at both nucleotide and amino acid levels between the Iranian isolates were 96-100 % and these isolates were more similar to the European PLRV isolates than to the other isolates. Furthermore, phylogenetic and population genetic analysis were carried out on the basis of full-length ORF0 and overlapping and non-overlapping regions of ORF0 and ORF1 (ORF0/1) which revealed that PLRV isolates were not geographically resolved. Also, we identified negative selection with different ratios for each of the mentioned genomic regions suggesting effects of F-box motif and -1 frameshift on ORF0 non-overlapping region and ORF0/1 in the selection pressure, respectively. Five recombination events were detected in the Iranian, Australian, and European isolates suggesting an important role for this phenomenon in influencing genetic diversity within this virus population.Virus Genes 08/2012; · 1.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To diminish the time required for some diagnostic assays including reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP; due to mainly RNA extraction step) and also DAS-ELISA into a minimum level, an innovative immunocapture RT-LAMP (IC-RT-LAMP) and immunocapture reverse transcription (IC/RT-PCR) protocol on the basis of Potato Leafroll virus (PLRV) genome were used and optimized. In this regard, all six IC-RT-LAMP primers (i.e. F3, B3, FIP, BIP, LF and LB) together with IC/RT-PCR primers were designed on the basis of the highly conserved sequence (ORF3) of coat protein gene (GenBank accession number: U73777) of PLRV genome. Even though DAS-ELISA, IC/RT-PCR and IC-RT-LAMP assays could successfully detect positive infected plant samples, considering the time, safety, sensitivity, cost and simplicity, the last one was overall superior. Meanwhile, among five different visual dyes to accurately detect IC-RT-LAMP products, both hydroxynaphthol blue and GeneFinder(TM) could produce long stable colour change and brightness in a close tube-based approach to prevent cross-contamination risk, concluded eventually as the best ones. Altogether, as IC-RT-LAMP is sensitive, cost-effective, fairly user friendly and also can generate more accurate results than previous diagnostic procedures, we accordingly propose this colorimetric assay as a highly reliable alternative viral recognition system regarding PLRV recognition and probably other viral-based diseases.Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 08/2012; 168(4):770-84. · 1.94 Impact Factor