Paracetamol for treating fever in children.
ABSTRACT Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is widely used for treating fever in children. Like ibuprofen, aspirin, and physical methods (such as fanning), paracetamol aims to provide relief from symptoms and prevent febrile convulsions. Uncertainty exists about the benefits of using it to treat fever in children.
To assess the effects of paracetamol for treating fever in children in relation to fever clearance time, febrile convulsions, and resolution of associated symptoms.
We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group specialized trials register (November 2001), The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2001), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2001), EMBASE (1988 to November 2001), LILACS (2001, 40a Edition CD-ROM), Science Citation Index (November 2001), and reference lists of articles. We also contacted researchers in the field.
Randomized and quasi-randomized trials of children with fever from infections comparing: (1) paracetamol with placebo or no treatment; and (2) paracetamol with physical cooling methods (eg, sponging, bathing, or fanning). The primary outcomes were fever clearance time and febrile convulsion.
Two reviewers independently extracted data on methods, types of participants, interventions, and outcomes. The meta-analysis was conducted using Relative Risk with 95% confidence intervals for discrete variables, and weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes.
12 trials (n = 1509 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Outcomes varied between trials. No data were available on the primary outcome. There is insufficient evidence to show whether paracetamol influenced the risk of febrile convulsions. In a meta-analysis of two trials (n = 120), the proportion of children without fever by the second hour after treatment did not differ significantly between those given paracetamol and those sponged (Relative Risk 1.84; confidence interval 0.94 to 3.61, random effects model). The statistical test showed significant heterogeneity between the groups receiving paracetamol or physical methods. No severe adverse events were reported. The number of children with mild adverse events did not differ significantly between paracetamol and placebo, or paracetamol and physical methods, but numbers were small.
Trial evidence that paracetamol has a superior antipyretic effect than placebo is inconclusive. There is limited evidence that there is no difference between the antipyretic effect of paracetamol and physical methods. Data on adverse events in these trials were limited. Establishing standard outcomes will help comparisons between studies and meta-analysis.
SourceAvailable from: Tarachand Lalwani[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. In the absence of standard pediatric prescribing information, clinicians often use medicines in an off-label way. Many studies have been published across the globe reporting different rates of off-label use. There is currently no study based on Indian drug formulary. Methods. The prospective observational study included pediatric patients in ages between 0 and 12 years admitted in a tertiary care hospital. Off-label use was assessed using the National Formulary of India (NFI). Predictors of off-label use were determined by logistic regression. Results. Of the 1645 medications prescribed, 1152 (70%) were off-label based on 14 possible off-label categories. Off-label medicines were mainly due to dose difference and use in restricted age limits as indicated in NFI. Respiratory medicines (82%), anti-infectives (73%), and nervous system medicines (53%) had higher off-label use. Important predictors of off-label prescribing were pediatric patients in age of 0 to 2 years (OR 1.68, 95% CI; P < 0.001) and hospital stay of six to 10 days (OR 1.91, 95% CI; P < 0.001). Conclusion. Off-label prescribing is common among pediatric patients. There is need to generate more quality data on the safety and efficacy of off-label medicines to rationalize pediatric pharmacotherapy.International Journal of Pediatrics 11/2014; 2014:415815. DOI:10.1155/2014/415815
09/2014; 6(3):208-226. DOI:10.1007/s40506-014-0025-1
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ABSTRACT: Paracetamol is commonly used to control mild-to-moderate pain or to reduce opioid exposure as part of multimodal analgesia, and is the only compound recommended to treat fever in neonates. Paracetamol clearance is lower in neonates than in children and adults. After metabolic conversion, paracetamol is subsequently eliminated by the renal route. The main metabolic conversions are conjugation with glucuronic acid and with sulphate. In the urine of neonates sulphated paracetamol concentration is higher than the glucuronidated paracetamol level, suggesting that sulfation prevails over glucuronidation in neonates. A loading dose of 20 mg/kg followed by 10 mg/kg every 6 hours of intravenous paracetamol is suggested to achieve a compartment concentration of 11 mg/L in late preterm and term neonates. Aiming for the same target concentration, oral doses are similar with rectal administration of 25 to 30 mg/kg/d in preterm neonates of 30 weeks' gestation, 45 mg/kg/d in preterm infants of 34 weeks' gestation, and 60 mg/kg/d in term neonates are suggested. The above-mentioned paracetamol doses for these indications (pain, fever) are well tolerated in neonates, but do not result in a significant increase in liver enzymes, and do not affect blood pressure and have limited effects on heart rate. In contrast, the higher doses suggested in extreme preterm neonates to induce closure of the patent ductus arteriosus have not yet been sufficiently evaluated regarding efficacy or safety. Moreover, focussed pharmacovigilance to explore the potential causal association between paracetamol exposure during perinatal life and infancy and subsequent atopy is warranted.Current Therapeutic Research 12/2015; 77:24-30. DOI:10.1016/j.curtheres.2014.12.001 · 0.45 Impact Factor